IMMUNE CELL DEVELOPMENT – Study Questions
Lecture 1: Hematopoiesis and Stem Cells
1. Why are immune cells in constant development?
2. What are the two lineages of blood cells? Which cells belong to each lineage?
3. Which cell produces both lineages?
4. What are the distinguishing characteristics of each cell?
5. What are the steps of differentiation for each lineage? What ability do the progenitor cells
have in comparison to the mature cells?
6. Why are hematopoietic stem cells referred to as pluripotent?
7. What experiments were performed and by whom to develop the concept of the
hematopoietic stem cell?
8. What are the two important characteristics that define a stem cell? How do they differ?
9. Can self-renewal be measured from colony-forming assays?
10. What differentiates progenitor cells from stem cells?
11. What are the two types of stem cells? Where are they found? What is their potential?
12. How do you perform an assay for hematopoietic stem cells?
13. What is competitive repopulation? What does it ensure?
14. What experiments were performed and by whom to determine that the hematopoietic
stem cell was distinct? What are the types of markers found on hematopoietic stem cells?
15. What are the types of self-renewal? What is the type of division that doesn’t result in self-
16. What are the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that control hematopoietic stem cell self-
17. Where are hematopoietic stem cells found in the body?
18. What are the three techniques used to elucidate the pathways of hematopoietic
development? What where the important experiments performed for each technique?
19. What is stem cell factor? What is its importance? What experiment was performed to
discover this importance?
20. What are the three types of hematopoiesis defects occurred when there are mutations in
the transcriptional factors? Which transcriptional factor accounts for each defect?
21. What is the clinical value of stem cells and stem cell theory? What are the current
problems with each value?
22. Where are there enough stores of hematopoietic cells to make therapy possible?
23. What is the importance of cancer stem cells? Why is knowledge of these important for
hematopoietic cells? Lecture 2: Myeloid Cell Development
1. What are the myeloid lineage cells? What are the identifying characteristics of each?
2. What is the difference between macrophages and monocytes? Where are each found?
3. What is the result of defective granulocytes?
4. What is the importance of macrophages?
5. What is the treatment for severe congenital neutropenia? What happens if it is not
treated? What is the cause of this disease?
6. What are the important features of macrophages? What are their different functions?
7. What is the mononuclear phagocyte system? Which cells are a part of this system?
8. What are the different types of macrophages and where is each located?
9. What is the importance of monocytes? Which organ is their reservoir?
10. What are the two types of monocytes expressed in mice? What do they express that make
them the same and what do they express to make them different? What is the purpose of
11. What are the cytokines excreted by macrophages? Which macrophage is responsible for
12. What are the two subsets of human monocytes? How do they differ and how are they the
same? What are their functions?
13. What are the functions of dendritic cells?
14. What are the two dendritic cell subsets? How do they differ? What is their purpose?
15. How does the phenotype of myeloid progenitor cells differ from the phenotype of
hematopoietic stem cells?
16. What are the characteristics of the common myeloid progenitor?
17. How does the common myeloid progenitor differ from the common lymphoid
18. What is the monocyte dendritic progenitor? How does it differ from the other progenitor
cells? Which cells does it produce?
19. What are the myeloid growth factors? What cell type does each stimulate?
20. If mice have a mutation in the gene encoding CSF-1 (op) what happens? Why?
21. Are op/op mice still able to response to CSF-1? Why or why not?
22. What company produces recombinant human G-CSF? Which bacterium is used to
produce it? What is it used for? Why?
23. What company produces recombinant GM-CSF? Which bacterium is used to produce it?
What is it used for? Why? What else could it be used for?
24. What are the transcription factors essential for myeloid development?
25. What is the shape of growth factor-independence-1 (GFI-1)? What is its function? Which
cell types is it expressed in? Why?
26. What happens if there is a mutation in the gene coding for GFI-1?
27. Which cell type is GFI-1 important for producing?
28. What is the function of PU.1? What does it bind? 29. What happens if there’s a mutation in the gene coding for PU.1? What happens to
knockout mice? Are humans able to survive if they have a lack of PU.1?
30. What is the function of c/EBPα? What does it bind?
31. What happens to knockout mice? What happens if there’s a mutation in c/EBPα?
32. What is acute myeloid leukemia? What is it associated with? What is sufficient to cause
this disease? Which age group is it associated with? Lecture 3: Lymphocyte Development
1. What are the lymphocyte progenitor cells? What is the progeny of each progenitor?
2. What is the result of differentiation?
3. What are the transcription factors required for lymphoc