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Music 1710F/G
Edmund Goehring

Goehring Music 1710 Winter 2011 Guidelines for Final Exam 1) Listening Josquin,Ave Maria -imitative polyphony -religious aspect (aware of church music) – ‘my’regarded towards self –santification -text shapes music -show off musicality rather than enjoyment of music?? Bach, Fifth Brandenburg Concerto:I -strings, harpsichord, numerous -continuation -meant to impress -crazy composer and performer (super fast tempo) Bach, Fantasy and Fugue in G minor, BWV 542 (just the fugue) p.g. 166 -trills, continuation -fugue: one or two themes initiated -organ -fortspinning: intensity obtained by devices such as sequence, repetition, and intervallic variation -sequence Mozart, Quartet in G K. 387:IV p.g. 167 -concerto -sonata allegro -exposition: theme 1 (imitative polyphony) theme 2 (homophony –rustic style) transition to theme 3 (imitative polyphony) ending in chromatic passage -development: chromatic (thematic), theme 1 returns homophonic -recap.: Unanticipated return of theme 2, transition to theme 3, close -coda: chromatic theme, theme 1 restated with imitationornate homophonic close of theme 1 Chopin, Prelude in E minor -dynamic contrast intimacy/sensual experience (Chopan was ill, could only play loud for a bit) -rebato -uniform sound -deceptive cadence -pianist start to memorize music (make it their own) Wagner, Prelude and Liebestod from Tristan und Isolde p.g. 171 -lack of traditional tonic resolution prolonged yearning/longing of ill-fated lovers (continued motion) -Tristan chord -chromatic scales -singers have nowhere to breathe -erotic -Debussy used to be Wagnerian but disliked him for his attitude ‘showboat’ Steve Reich, Violin Phase -violins displaced -exchange parts -minimalism Debussy, Prelude to “TheAfternoon of a Faun” p.g. 179 -impressionism -tristan melody (used as color rather than function) -whole tone, pentatonic, chromatic harmonics (Faun-myth) -romantic melody -harp, violin, flute -unknown goal Beethoven, Symphony No. 9 (the whole thing) p.g. 189-192 1 Movement: -famous ambiguous intro -fifths everywhere -conflict between major and minor -anticipation of last movement 2 Movement: -opens with opening reminiscence in first movement -dancelike -ABA(Scherzo Trio Scherzo) [scherzo=falling fifths] } ‘ode to joy’contrasting character, simple, trio/cut off/ back to minor scherzo 3 Movement: -slow & beautiful -drone (lullaby) -rising melody, no modulation, repeated th 4 Movement: st nd rd -recitative (brings back 1 movement further rejecting it –same with 2 and 3 ) -‘Ode to Joy’introduced in different variations, 2 beginnings: one instrumental, one vocal 2) Readings Transmission of the Classical Legacy: -Boethius treatise De Institutione Musica (7 liberal arts – quadrivium/trivium) -musica mundane, humana & instrumentalis constituta (perceived music of universe –harmoniously tuned) -consonance = united one body machine -concept of ethos The ‘Fount and Origin’(Renaissance): -music high and music low –loud dance/outdoor music verses soft court/chamber music Josquin des Prez in the Eyes of His contemporaries: -genius composer: employee of King Louis XII (only writes when he feels like it) -lacked proper measure & judgment (unrestrained songs  challenged king to keep promises with psalms –“remember thy word unto thy servant” and “thou has dealt well with thy servant O Lord”) -Martin Luther – fan of Josquin  God preached through medium of music -Josquin taught music only to those who were musically driven towards the beautiful art -Isacc: not as good a composer, but was a quick composer, did as he was told, cheap employment, social Bach’s Duties & Obligations at Leipzig: -acoustician, performer, composer, singer, organist, producer, pedagogue, violinist, administrator, seeked job – Brandenburg) Letter to a Lady of a certain age, on the present state of Opera -abandoned music of forefathers -comic opera (overdone action, comedic melodramatic acting –still incorporate serious characters) (tunes are simple, elegant, expressive, natural tone) if music is to survive it must adapt -not best singers, wonderful composers -tension exists between idea and realization Aphorisms: -music speaks universal language (light on human soul) -musicians transforms art into tones Smetana & the Czech National Style: -Smetana (genuine modern Czech lover) – went to see Liszt (music king) -adorn & enrich European music literature by virtue of its characteristic originality -nationalistic (military bands & theatre orchestras with musicians) The ‘New Russian School”: -independent thought and skeptic towards past music -musicians work independently: acknowledge singular greatness towards musical achievements and compositions -disregard prejudices of crowd/transform musical laws -National music –roots of life in people -program music (PURPOSE) Musorgsky, a music realist: -original composer in New Russian School -reformer of vocal music (reproduce human speech in artistic sounds) -aesthetic/application of artist’s own instinct -art communicates with people, it is not an end of itself First Performance of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony: -competition with 8 previous works -expressive sentiments in poem ‘song of joy’ -natural/overwhelming dynamics/tone/character -universal joy tempered with universal regret (Beethoven being deaf) Augustine Confessions: -purpose sinning for action of sin itself  music -classification: study history and how class of objects interact Postmodernist Paradigms -irresistible pull in art (interaction of strong personalities) -western art music faint voice (isolated) -modernism: pay price of misunderstanding nature of cultural evolution (social cost of stylistic progress) – can’t interbreed Darwinian requirements: a. Inheritance –musical style b. Variation- personal expression of composer/musician c. Differential success -social loyalties: stability - Predefined categories towards genre definition and preconceptions of what’s appropriate -technological advancements towards changing timbre -Jazz-influence (improve not required)  paint picture of surroundings -cultural isolation Comprehensibility and value: -listening grammar over compositional grammar (exposure to music) – regardless of external elements, music is listened to the same way -intuitive over analytic -best music: utilizes the full potential of cognitive resources, arises from alliance of compositional and listening grammar -artistic authoritarianism -natural/historical implication/musical mind (vs. music of spheres) Feminist Perspectives: -male dominance in music -why no ‘great’women composers?Activity outside domestic realm frowned against -women need to know what they can achieve -Beethoven’s 9 – ‘horrifyingly violent movement’– instant death/loss of subjective identity/organized patriarchy towards male pleasure Folk Song: a new name for something old: -herder pursued ethical purpose  nourishment of ancestors unadorned poetry -Gluck-natural tones (human passion/affection), simplifying music (chaste & sober) The Future of Music: -music essential human activity -music and text together -13 century poems isolated -intro of polyphony (new degree of complex
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