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Music 2711F/G
John Pippen

Major Issued in European Culture • Feudalism towards Mercantile/early capitalist (market) • Rise of middle class ◦ there are only used to be rich and poor but merchants and philosophical shifts allowed middle class • Rise of public sphere (everyone was aware of things, this was new) • Public/private dichotomy ( increased idea of privacy, this implies wealth) • Enlightenment ◦ Baggage ▪ sense of self subjectivity ▪ rise of nation state Major Issues in Musical Culture • Baroque • Public concert • creation of opera • virtuosity-took to new heights • Rise of Tonality • Rise of amateur music making ( has to do with privacy) ◦ people had time and money to educate • Plethora of musical styles ◦ very diverse and well documented ◦ Rise of sense of style • Canon ( defining feature of WesternArt Music ◦ rise of idea of cannon- pieces that were really important • Beginning of musical interiority ( Big concept) ◦ sense that listening to music is an intellectual, private affair, it involves your mind and its private inner-realization ◦ linked to politics of western music. Italian Vocal Music Florentine Camerat ( 1573-87) • Group of poets, musicians and noblemen • debated ways to recreate the style of singing used by ancient Greece in their drama • they cant figure how to tell a story through a song so that it sounds good. The Seconda Prattica • Rhythms of music should be modelled on the rhythms of speech • they wanted the singing to imitate vocal patterns-the way we talk ◦ at times flowing ◦ at times halting ◦ points of punctuation ( cadence) ◦ cadences at varying strength ◦ stop and go singing • Works placed solo vocal line above instrumental line • Supporting instrumental lines was known as the basso continuo “continuous bass” Basso Continuo • provided framework for voice above it Figured Bass • Series of numbers used to indicate harmonies of the bass line • instrumentation was flexible and rarely specified • minimum- chordal instrument. Basso Continuo Ensemble • Bass instrument with one or more chordal instrument • Bass lines was often reinforced with a low-range instrument such as a bass viol or bassoon Chittarone or Tiorba of Fiorgo • Big lute • Used in opera and accompaniment Basso Continuo • Allowed for projection of sung text through a single voice • Solo singing resulted in a new • Agenre of opera- sung drama- which singers could be individual characters Monody • Combination of solo and basso continuous • Lies between song and speech • singers projected text in a style that is both lyrical and dedametory, measured and rhythmically fluid Music in Baroque- stylistic Overview • Emergence of basso continuous • coexistence of old and new style • shift from modal to tonal writing • intervalic chordal harmony • word painting • started to take form of what would soon be known as tonality • greater rhythmic freedom • increased virtuosity • difference between vocal and instrumental styles • Emergence of basso continuo • Rise of importance between instrument and vocal music • program music • cultivation of contrasting timbres • Emergence of national styles • Orchestra Opera • Rises out of madrigal comedies ( stories to music) • Influenced by church singing and papal choir • Roles reflect different gender norms due to men singing high parts • High voice parts for men was very common • Castration resulted in very high parts • Gender was not directly connected with voice type Recitative • Permitted solo voices to declaim large amounts of text in rapid, comprehensible manner • can tell a lot-fast • Syllabic setting • imitates speaking • Early opera mixed recitative with polyphonic madrigals, arias and choruses and instrumental interludes. Arias • Setting of strophic text • choruses and instrumental interludes Claudio Monteverdi • Wrote in both prima prattica and seconda prattica • First half of career ( 1590) he was a court musician, eventually music • director, for Gonzaga nobles in Mantua • for the second half he was a maestro di capela ( basically a music director) at the basilica of San Marco • Well respected and well paid • wrote in many genres Orfeo • Commissioned by son of Duke of Manea, performed at ducel palace • opera in five acts • Story of Orpheus and he love Eurydice • Large orchestra • Characters ◦ La Musica [Music] the prologue - soprano ◦ Orfeo [Orpheus] - tenor ◦ Eurydice [Eurydice] - soprano ◦ Silvia [Sylvia] the messenger - soprano ◦ Speranza [Hope] - soprano ◦ Caronte [Charon] - bass ◦ Proserpina - soprano ◦ Plutone [Pluto] - bass ◦ Apollo - tenor ◦ ❖ Importance of affect- the music convey's emotion • Note: opera started with being for the wealthy. Politics of 1600s Europe • Age of Absolutism ◦ Various monarchies seized power-new theory that monarchs were ordained by God • 30 Years war ( 1618-1648) • Increased trade due to colonization ◦ People were going places, finding new things, less natives, slaves • Churches and courts major musical and cultural centres ◦ Composers oftened worked at courts and churches Venice, 1638 • Heart of venetian republic • wealth • trade • people claimed to have best traditions of Rome • much trade occurred Rise of Public Opera • Touring troupes • Wealthy city • 1673- first public opera house ◦ Rich people didn’t want to be at mercy of troupes so hired permanent ones ◦ people bought their share which was basically a season ticket ◦ in ten years this was very popular • Open to wealthier public • changed operatic conventions • First bug public music act • Anyone would go if they bought a share ( which was still elite) • Changed operatic conventions because audience was large and expected something new ◦ comedy was added, ◦ new works were written ◦ coronation de popeo was written for this L'incoronziones di poppea ( 1642) • Written more for the public • serious and comedic • vulnerable characters • simpler production • no elaborate costumes/props • could do with 10-15 people • written for historical more then mythical • emperor of Rome and his love affair with poppae- both are married but super in love, they are pretty selfish and mocked in the opera • Characters: ◦ Ottone [Otho] mezzo-soprano ◦ Poppea [Poppaea] mistress of Nero soprano ◦ Nerone [Nero] Roman emperor soprano ◦ Ottavia [Octavia] reigning empress,soprano ◦ Drusilla soprano ◦ Seneca philosopher, preceptor to Nero, bass • Mixture of recitative and aria • much later then orfeo • syllabic text setting • mixtures of tempi • use of chromatic harmonies to express affect Sacred Music • Composerts applied principles of seconda prattica to sacred music • Claudio Monteverdi,Antonio Cesti, Barbara Strozzi • Italian, Venetian music was very influential(composers often studied in Rome and Venice) • Schutz(1585-1622) never abandoned prima ◦ Worked at a church ◦ wrote “saul, was ver Folgst du mich? 1650 Oratorio • Began in 1600 • Church needed own opera ( banned it during lent operas as they wanted people to focus on God- but they realized that music made people listen) • Large scale religious works • Replacement for banned opera • No staging or costumes, narrator instead ( sometimes staged) • Used all conventions of opera ( recitative, da capo aria, chorus) • “Jept” (1645) by Carrissimi ( in Latin) Opera • Established first public opera house in venice 1638 • New audience demanded new kinds of performances, spaces and imposed new economics( opera for profit) • Had to be profitable because it wasn't supported otherwise ( the court and church) ◦ It had to be self-sustaining Opera Outside Italy 1600-1650 • Slower to develop ( political and social reasons) • France, Spain and England ( wasn't really their things because they already had dramatic tradition) • Both political and aesthetic reasons for resistance • Castrato contributed to rise of opera Castrati • Became Synonymous for a new type of vocal virtuosity ( very broad, meant someone who was very talented) • Originated in Italy • Surgery was illegal, though it wasn't really enforced, 1700 more frowned upon • Preferred alternative to falsettos or chorister boys ( they were trained a while, castrati were more powerful( • Women were forbidden from church/theatre singing until 1600 • Early on employed by churches, increasingly common as genre flourished • After 1710, famous castrati were opera singers ( not church singers) • people seemed enthusiastic • undeveloped surgery in youth, before puberty • well trained in all musical aspects • part of super-start system, exit -convention ( they were more popular then the opera they were singing • Exit convention: come on stage, sing aria then finish and leave and the crowd would go crazy and they would come back ◦ This resulted in competition • Had high, powerful voices, • Usually male leads-hero, lovers, etc • dominated opera seria • gender roles were different • Castrati were sexually desirable and could never get people pregnant Opera Seria • Italy • Literally “ serious opera” • usually tragic content • very popular • developed in Italy and sung almost exclusively in Italian • Became an international drama • libretto draws from classical antiquity • Rulers presented in favourable light, heroic, placing honour above personal gain • texts balance drama and music with mixture of action ( recitative) and reflection (aria The Arcadian Academy • Founded in Rome in 1969 by Cardinal pietro Ottoini • interested in improving Italian poetry, especially opera libretto • Many other Arcadian groups were formed throughout Europe • Wanted to purify serious opera of comic elements Pietro Metastasio (1698-1782) • His early education was supervised by his godfather cardinal ottobori • made his names as a poet and libretist in Rome • Appointed caesarian court poet to the holy Roman Empire in 1729 and moved to Vienna • Wrote 27 opera libretto between 1723-1771 • Metatasoam drama focused on moral forces: characers driven by interactions toward moral victory or self-defeat • Libretto set many times, only first setting supervised by mestasio, afterwards it is freely altered • 1730-1760 dominated European opera ( eventually included France) • specific opera often tailored to local tastes, ranging from ruler to playing in public George Fredric Handel 1685-1759 • Early life ( 1695-1706) travels, variety of musical works ( asst. Organist, violinist, composer, wrote two opera seria • Travels to Italy, studying new operatic genre, oratorios • 1710 Kapellmeister to elector of Hanover • 1712 moves to England after success of operas • elector becomes kind George I of England • 1720-41: writes numerous opera seria, gradually shifts toward oratorios Opera Seria • Most of arias are da capo arias ( from the head, after B performers go back to the beginning of Aand continues to end of that section Recitative Semplice • “Simple recitative” accompanied with basso continuo for extended passages of phrase Recitativo accompagnato • Accompanied recitative • supported by full orchestra for moments of high emotion or dramatically Recit II A A' A B Da Capo ritornells (solo) solo 2 rit 3 || solo three Giulo Cesure ( 1724) Accademia degli Incogniti • Venice times-secretive society of wealthy intellects, 1630 and 40s • Venice-conservative but financially stable • worked behind scenes • have ideas about music, politics, but makes changes behind scenes • they were liberal • significant lobbying power Academia degli unisoni • Off-shoot • interested in music and poetry • Barbara Strozzi's father Giulio was a founding member • people wrote and presented music to them • exclusive academy • “group of like-minded people” • encouraged new genres of music Secular Cantata • Secular canata • new genre • chamber ensemble and mostly solo singing • similar to madrigals • organized around a them • many smaller ariosos” songs • structurally flexible • Antonio Cesti, Barbera Strozzi
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