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Music 1711F/G Study Guide - Final Guide: Pythian Games, Lorenzo Da Firenze, Roman De Fauvel

Course Code
Music 1711F/G
Evan Cortens
Study Guide

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Music History – Medieval and Renaissance
Antiquity and Music in Greece
-Every known civilization had music
-Singing an instruments played throughout history – religious rituals
Music in the Biblical World
Old Testament
-references to music and music therapy
-No notated music has survived – only written accounts
Psalms and Hymns
-sparked the development in plainchant
-developed relationship between spirituality and music
Ancient Greece
-Western music derives from Ancient Greece and their ideologies
-developed patterns of thought and social justice
-political, commercial and social height
Music in Ancient Greece
-very little notated has survived
- 45 pieces – fragments
-largely monophonic
Greek culture
-Greek Dramas – words, music and dance seen as inseparable – “musica”
-relied on memorization
Religious and Civic Rituals
-Iliad and Odyssey were thought to be sung
-Singing was a competitive event at Pythian Games
-In honour of Apollo – god of music and healing
-at social events
Greek Musical Theory
-based on tetrachords
-a descending succession of four notes spanning the interval of a fourth

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-Genera: diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic
Greater Perfect System
- a series of four interlocking tetrachords plus one additional note
-A span of two octaves
-A whole configuration of tones and semitones
-believed that modes could impact the mind of a person
-certain modes considered dangerous
Epitaph of Seiklos
-written on a tombstone
-1st century C.E.
-was accompanied – not written down
-only long and short rhythms
-no tempo, no tuning system
Instruments of Ancient Greece
-aulos (wind pipes)
-krotala (castanets)
-kumbala (finger cymbols)
Music in the Roman Empire
-117 CE – Rome took control of Greece – Augustus reigned
-Absorbed Greek Culture
-No music survived – only written accounts
-significant advancements to instruments
Boethius –wrote “De Institutione musica”
-3 Classes of people; perform, compose, judge
Pythagoras (6th Century BCE)
-discovers pitch and ratios – Octave, fifth and fourth were focused on
-Music is seen as more mathematical than artistic
Music & Cosmos
-Music is a fundamental law governing all physical bodies in the universe
-Balance in the spacing of the spheres
Music & Soul
-Can alter the behaviour of humans

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-Harmony vs. Discord
-Doctrine of Ethos – music is capable of triggering emotions
Vocal vs. Instrumental
-Instrumental seen as inferior
-was admired because it had the same capability to trigger emotions the same way vocal music
-performers seen as slaves to their instruments
The Medieval Era
Background History
-2 Periods
400 -1000 CE
1000 – 1400 CE
-Fall of the empire
-dark era
-Lost ability to read ancient Greek
-A lot of death – plague etc
-Many people devoted themselves to the church
-Most of Europe is Christian
-Ruler of the Franks (France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy)
-Had alliance with the Pope
-Wanted a centralized authority w/ standard laws – Uniformity
The Court
-passionate love , but from a distance
Year 1000
-feared end of the world
-saw major advancements in tech, architechture, education and arts
-Islamic culture brought to west (military wanted to claim holy land)
– advancements in philosophy, astronomy, math and medicine
-first universities developed
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