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Philosophy 2500F/G Study Guide - Final Guide: Empiricism, Ontological Argument

Course Code
PHIL 2500F/G
Study Guide

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Empiricist knows that knowledge of the outside world comes from experiences, what we know
about matter is created by what our perceptions of objects are
Descartes is a rationalist, argues that what comes to us comes to us from our rational mind from
knowledge and science
Methodological skepticism treating everything as false until something comes to make it
Things you experience are a merely a fabrication of the mind no definitive signs that allow us
to distinguish between real life and fabrications a number gives it extension that makes it real
Evil genius: doesn’t want ideas to be based in God – the less perfect the thing is that created me
is the more likely it is that what I created is, is flawed
Radical dualism between the person and the place that he lived in, man vs nature Descartes
distrusts the material world says it is no place for knowledge
Descartes believes that though his doubt he can develop scientific principles that will help him
I think therefore I am: doubts everything but then realizes since doubt is a thought it can’t be
doubted because it’s still thinking. Solopsism: his existence is a self evident truth – one certain
Imagination is our capacity to think of images in our mind of things we have sensed in the
external world
Intellect, he knows he exists and that’s the only thing he can be certain of. Intellect allows him
to understand and doubt things
3rd Meditations clear and distinct ideas are only by virtue certain, all other ideas can be subject
to doubt
Metaphysical Problem: constructing a world that only has him in it not a political world or
world that anyone would really find pleasing to live in
Types of thought: ideas are the units that create thought, simple ideas are particulars (you don’t
have to be able to sense them)
Compounds volitions modes of thought like willing and affirming
Judgements i exist the sky is purple is a type of idea
Material falsity simple ideas they are true in so far as it’s an idea makes it so that things
appear to be things they aren’t really – so illustrious
You need to apply your rational mind to something in order to make it true, our senses alone
are an impetus to true knowledge- simple substances are deconstructed into substances, modes
and accidents
Substances are particular things, they are indivisible and because they are predicated on
something there aren’t any precedents
Descartes is a dualist because he believes in bodies and mind
Bodies are extended so that they can have mass, minds and aren’t extended
Objective reality than the finite because finite is limited, substances aren’t limited – something
has more objective reality when it is more perfect
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