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Einstein for Everyone Final Exam Review.doc

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Western University
Philosophy 2032F/G
Erik Curiel

1. Geodistics in special relativity Timelike geodesic: The timelike curve connecting two events of greatest proper time. 2. Galileos principle of objects to free fall and how it is related to special relativity? Galileo, who articulated the first "relativity principle" in the seventeenth century. In generating his relativity principle, Galileo removed the distinction between stationary and moving observers, arguing that people on earth cannot tell if they are really at rest or if they are moving with the rotation of the earth each day. To demonstrate this, Galileo used the example of a cannonball falling from the top of a ship's mast. He noted that the cannonball will land at the base of the mast whether the ship is moving steadily through the ocean, or whether it is at rest in a dock. Even if they observe the falling ball, people on the ship cannot tell if they are really at rest or if they are moving with the ship. They cannot distinguish their state of rest from the ship's state by observing motion that takes place within the "reference frame" of the ship. In other words, a person at rest on the deck of a ship cannot determine whether the ship is at rest or moving at a steady speed through the ocean by observing actions that happen on the ship itself. That person must observe the ship relative to its surrounding environment in order to make such a determination. 3. Revive statistical mechanics that went into the background work of quantum mechanics. Ideal gas Law, Diffusion, Browlie 4. Why Einstein used quanta? Einstein used quanta because he concluded that light and gas obeyed the same laws at high frequencies. Photoelectric effect- this effect showed that high frequency light was needed to knock of cathodes. This showed that light behaved in a different wave. When low frequency light hit the wall it wouldn’t have enough quanta energy but when high frequency did it would. 5. You need to know qualitatively how time dialation works? Since speed is equal to distance over time and light is a constant there needs to be altercations to the equation when working with the speed of light. For example if the distance increase the time needs to decreae to make up for this. And if the time increases then to the length has to decrease to make up for this to. Can use hyperplanes of simultaneity to judge telative time dilations. Twin paradox etc. Special relativity: the laws of physics are the same in all inertial references, and the speed of light is constant. 6. How Schawrazchild spacetime works and what can it be used for? It is a universe where it looks like Minoskwi spacetime has you get closer ot infinity. It has a central point in space where curvature around it is symmetrical. Good spacetime around the sun ( assume no sun doesn’t rotate or electrical charge) Einstein had two problems with this spacetimes. First from the empirical date they had at that time the universe was filled with equal distribution of stars. Second he likes a fixed spacetimes depending on matter distribution based on General relativity. Einstein didn’t like the arbitrariness of infinity when you reached closer to infinity as you predicted a curvature without knowing the mass distribution. 7. Need to know the properties of the Einstein universe and what it can be used for? He abolished spatial infinity. He did this by introduction a new constant in his equations. It contains a uniform mass distribution so that matter is at rest and geometry of space slices are unchanging with time. Overall is it s 5none geometry with no infinity and space curving back onto itself. The space time is Homogeneous with the same spatial curvature in all directions. It is spatially isotropic, meaning it is the same in every direction of spatial direction. Einstein added a constant to his equation in order to supply the missing curvature needed for his universe: Summed of Space curvate plus lamba= matter density De sitter arugued that this lamba actually expanded the universe without matter despite its intentions. The lamba is a repulsive force that cancels out the gravitational force that would be present in his spacetime so that his spacetime would not collapse. Lamda was changed to show that spacetime=-lambda, it behaves like an odd matter that expands the matter in the universe. Time Travel Universe (Einstein Universe)- If you take the cylinder and have the one dimension time on the surface you can go forward and meet youself in the future. Grandfather Paradox. The grandfathers assasion would not occur. (global constraints). 8. What do different type of geodesic deviation say about different kind of curvature? Spherical Geometry- Positive Curvature- 5NONE- Lines connect back to themselves. Triangle- Sum More then 180 degrees. Perpindiculars Converge(diverge slower then expected) Euclidean Geometry- Flat- Infinite length- 180- perpendicular netiher converge or diverge Hyperbolic Geomtetry- Negative Curvature- 5MORE- Less then 180- Perpindicualrs Diverge. (converge slower then expected) 9. What is superposition? And how do you interpret them? You can add up waves. In a superposition the wave is concentrated in one place. It shows that a spatially localized particle has a whole set of momentums because of superposition to get that localized wave packet. 10. In principle what it would be like to pass through the even horizon of the black hole? You would be hit by tidal forces and spagettified until you hit the singularity. The time cones would tilt toward singularity as you got closer to the event horizion, where inside it would completely tilt so your only possible future would be towards the singularity. You would not feel going through the event horizon but an observes would only see you frozen at the even horizon but never actually pass through it. 11. What the measurement problem and why is it a problem? A quantum system can evolve in time in only two ways. One is Schroedingers in which wave of a system propogates in a familiar manner of waves. The other way is through collapsing which happens when we measure it. The lack of precise data to which evoluation will arise has created a constulation puzzle. The best known example of this schodingers cat. Responses to it: Accept the standard account, hidden variable theory, new dynamics, no collapse theory 12. The difference between Newtonian gravitational theory, special relativity, and general relativity and also how they are related? 13. Rutherford model of the atom Charged positive nucleus with negatively charged electrons that go around it. Energy gained move further away from nucleues and when come back release energy as emission. First problem as it came down it’d pass through continuous range of frequencies and therefore emit a continuous range so there was no way to control it. Second nothing stops this emission and the electron will emit until it reaches the nucleus and crashes. 14. How electrons orbit around a nucleus Depends which model . 15. Bohr model of the atom Stable orbits around the nucleus that electrons could orbit without losing energy. Energy that allows it to jump has to be equal to the energy needed to go from one orbit to the oth
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