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Philosophy 2400/ Phil. Mind Final Exam Review Notes

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Western University
Philosophy 2400F/G
Sheldon Chow

1 Created by the Best Friends Group 1 What is the difference between mindbrain type identity and mindbrain token identity a A physical or mental token is a particular occurrence of a physical object or a mental state b A physical or mental type is the kind of thing that a token may bei Talbot College is a physical token of the building type while believing in Santa Claus is a mental token of a type of belief that many children sharec Every mental token is identical to a physical type in the brain which would be a neural activity d Identity theorists are type physicalists about mental states that mental states are identical to physical states of the braini This position comes from the belief that mental states can only come from the biochemical brain so that those states that belong to a certain mental type will also belong to a certain type of physical event in the brain like a firing of neurons in a certain patterne According to mindbrain type identity every mental state of the belief type will be a kind of neural activity Mindbrain token identity is a simpler claim that a token of a human mental state must be identical to a token of a physical state of the brain2 What did Kripke mean by rigiddesignator and nonrigid designator What role did these concepts play for his arguments regarding mindbrain identity and what were his conclusions Kripke Starts off by saying some people have said identity statements specifically scientific discoveries have been described as contingentseem to be this way because they were scientific discoveries result of identity is due to course of science o in another possible world they could have been different o ie Heat is the motion of molecules Water is HO Gold has the 2atomic number 79 Light is a stream of photons Kripke thinks all of these statements are necessary if they are true w notion of rigid and nonrigid designators Rigid Designator same object designated by term in all possible worldsEx the square root of 25 in all possible worlds 5 referent will always be the same NonRigid Designator different possible objects could be designated by term in all possible worldsEx the inventor of bifocals could be a different person in a different worldThis is related to the mindbody problem 2 Created by the Best Friends Groupmany people today want to be materialists in the particular form known as the identity theory which also seems to be a contingent statement like the first examples above o Certain mental state ie being in pain is identical w certain material or neural state of his brain or body o Objection we can imagine pain existing wout state of body even no mind o Reply changing the contingent facts does not eliminate identification of any components separately from contingency claimphilosophers want to keep these contingency claimsfor our theoretical understanding of mindbody problemMindbody problemSeems contingent because o 1 can imagine pain brain state existing wout any pain since it is only a scientific fact that whenever have brain statehave pain o 2 can imagine creature in pain wout specific brain state or any brain state whatsoever no body evenNot contingent because we cannot say that this pain may have been something else o Specific brain state of pain is always that brain state these molecules are in this configuration we do have suchandsuch a brain state o Specific pain experience is always that pain experience whenever you feel this you have pain o They are both rigidProblem for identity theorists claims are now necessary so they cannot reply to the objection that we can imagine pain existing wout a state of body even no mind With the mindbody identity claim is contingent so it doesnt matter what they actually are o Opens up a big explanatory problem for materialists they have to disprove that imagined cases are possible and has to show we cant imagine them3 Explain the role of afterimages for Philosophers like Place and SmartThe afterimage is Place and Smarts theory to respond to an objection to mindbrain where when one experiences a yelloworange afterimage they are aware that they are experiencing the imagery but are unaware of their brain processes Therefore the afterimage or sensation cannot be the same thing as their brain process
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