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Philosophy of professions notes.docx

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Western University
Philosophy 2720F/G

Philosophy Lecture NotesLecture 1 Based on Callahan ReadingMoral questions are normativewhat ought to be the caseones that are moral in nature focus on what is morally good or bad right or wrongoCallahans example did jane have an abortion descriptive or should jane ought to have an abortion moralHow to engage in moral deliberationoMethod cant be empiricaloBetter vs worse solutions no perfect solutionsoNeed to use our intuitionsoNeed to go furtherMoral dilemmasLecture 2When deliberating moral cases we get clear on whether the relevant behaviour is right or wrong and what justifies our belief some kind of principleoCallahan states in moral deliberation we try to reach a state of reflective equilibriumoWhen you are in reflective equilibrium your values and beliefs are stable not in conflict and provide consistent practical guidance towards moral dillemmasMoral deliberation is most successful when done collaborativelyMoral principles consequences duty or respect rights virtue caring etcThrough moral deliberation we want to arrive at an argument in favour of a conclusionoPremises of moral arguments normally include moral principles and factual claims Callahan 14oEx 1 that which is unnatural is immoral 2 homosexual behaviour is unnatural therefore homosexual behaviour is immoraloMoral principles involve a conceptual confusion over generalize and are inconsistent with settled beliefs we haveoFactual claims are not factual at all they are normative and they are simply falseLecture 3 Bayles and W May readingsBaylesDoes he think all professions are by nature the same What does he say are three necessary features of a profession Common vs necessaryIf p then q so p is sufficient for q and q is necessary for p necessary vs sufficient conditionsDegree of similarity Bayles believes that 3 necessary features and other common features are what allow us to classify many jobs or skills as professionsoNecessary featuresExtensive training required to practiceSignificant intellectual componentProvide an important service to societyoCommon featuresA process of certification or licensingOrganization of members representation of the professionAutonomy in the work which can be limited if a professional works in a large bureaucratic organization where superiors direct their activity and overrule their judgementsoAre any of the common features actually necessary rather than merely common to a professionoFind distinction bayles draws between consulting and scholarly professionsBayles believes consulting professions are distinct from scholarly professions due to the way they are compensated feeforservice basis versus salary consultants act primarily on behalf of an individual client wheras a scholarly profession usually has many clients students or no personal clientsoBayles believes there are two common features specifically to consulting professions are either or both necessaryLegal monopoly over provision of services practicing is a privilege conferred by the stateLarge degree of selfregulationoOne doesnt have a right to practice a profession it is a privilege conferred by the state
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