Chapter 10 NOTES.docx

9 Pages

Course Code
Philosophy 3420F/G
Angela White

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 9 pages of the document.
Chapter 10- Communication  What is communication o Communication: The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver.  Interpersonal communication is between two people  Simplest prototype, is one on one communication between two people o Model of the communication process  Thinking  Purchasing manager thinks, “I think we’re getting short on A- 40s.”  Encoding  Purchasing manger keyboards memo to assistant requesting that he/she order A-40s.  Transmitting  Purchasing manager sends memo by email.  Perceiving  Assistant reads memo  Decoding  Checks parts catalogue to find out what an A-40 is.  Understanding  Assistant realizes that he must place an order for flange bolts.  Feedback  Assistant sends the manager a copy of the order.  Demonstrates a number of points where errors can occur o Effective Communication: Communication whereby the right people receive the right information in a timely manner.  Violating any of these 3 conditions results in a communication episode that is ineffective.  Basics of Organizational Communication o Chain of command: Lines of authority and formal reporting relationships  3 forms:  Downward Communication: Information that flows from the top of the organization toward the bottom  Vice president -> manager > employees  Upward Communication: Information that flows from the bottom of the organization toward the top  Employee > manager > Vice president  Horizontal communication: Information that flows between departments or functional units usually as a means of coordinating effort.  Flows up to and down from a common manger. o Deficiencies in the chain of command.  Informal Communication  Chain of command does not consider informal communication. It helps people accomplish their jobs more effectively. Not always beneficial for the company  Filtering: The tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission.  Occurs both upward and downward and potential increases with the number of links in communication  Organization will establish channels to prevent: o Open door policy: The opportunity for employees to communicate directly with a manager without going through the chain of command. (Preventing upward filtering) o To prevent downward filtering organizations attempt to communicate directly with potential receivers, bypassing the chain of command.  Slowness  The chain of command can be very slow and an inefficient way to quickly react to customer problems o Cross-functional teams and employee empowerment have been used to improve communication by short- circuiting the chain of command.  Manager-Employee Communication  The one on one exchange of information between a boss and employee  Key element in upwards/downwards communication  Perceptions that managers are good communicators tend to be correlated positively with organizational performance. o How good is the manager-employee communication  Managers and employees often differ in their perceptions of the following issues:  How employees should and do allocate time.  How long it takes to learn a job.  The importance employees attach to pay.  The amount of authority the employee has.  The employee’s skills and abilities.  The employee’s performance and obstacles to good performance.  The manager’s leadership style.  These differences suggest a lack of openness in communication, which contributes to role conflict and ambiguity and reduces employee satisfaction. o Barriers to effective communication  Conflicting role demands  Leadership requires both task and social-emotional functions. Difficulties balancing the two.  Two separate messages focus on each aspect individual is more effective than one focusing on both  Mum effect: The tendency to avoid communicating unfavorable news to others.  More likely when sender is responsible for bad news  Applies to both management and employees  The Grape Vine o Grapevine: An organizations informal communication network  Cuts across formal communication, not just through word of mouth.  Transmits information relevant to the performance of the organization as well as personal gossip  Personal and emotionally charged information is most likely to be distorted (75% non controversial info is correct)  Only a portion of those who receive the information pass it on o Who participates?  Personality plays a role- extraverts more likely, same with people who lack self esteem and the info gives them a personal advantage.  The nature of the info influences who shares it  The physical location (high traffic work stations, constant moving positions mailman) is related to who passes on the information o Pros  Can keep employees informed on organizational matters  Can be used to test reactions, with out making a formal change.  Can serve as informal recruiting source o Cons  Pipeline for rumors  Rumor: An unverified belief that is in general circulation  Spread fastest when information is ambiguous, content is important, seems credible and recipient is anxious  No verification of accuracy can lead to rumors being distorted as they are shared.  The Verbal Language of Work o Jargon: Specialized language used by jobholders or members of particular occupations or organizations.  Its an efficient way to communicate with peers and provides a touch of status to those who have mastered it.  Can also serve as a barrier between departments and its intimidating to new members  The Non-Verbal Language o Non-verbal communication: The transmission of messages by some medium other than speech or writing.  Body Language: Non-verbal communication by means of a senders bodily motions, facial expressions or physical location.  Conveys two important messages  The extent to which the sender likes and is interested in the receiver  The sender’s views concerning the relative status of the sender and the receiver.  Senders communicate liking and interest in the receiver when they: o Position themselves physically close to the receiver. o Touch the receiver during the interaction. o Maintain eye contact with the receiver. o Lean forward during the interaction. o Direct the torso toward the receiver  Senders who feel themselves to be of a higher status then the receiver act more relaxed o The casual, asymmetrical placement of arms and legs o A reclining, non-erect seating position; and o A lack of fidgeting and nervous activity.  The greater the difference is relaxation the more they communicate a status differential to each other.  This could include showing our true feelings, “editing” our feelings, or trying to actively deceive others.  One area where body language has an impact is on the outcome of employment interview decisions.  Increased body language might give the edge to applicants who are otherwise equally well qualified o Props, artifacts and costumes can also contribute to communication  Office Décor and Arrangement  Conveys information about occupant  Personal decorations, neatness and a desk placed against the wall made student more comfortable in professor’s offices.  Middle managers have been found to use office décor to “profile” the identity and status of office occupants.  Clothing  Sends signals about competence, seriousness and promotibility  Does communicate but only partly as the clothes affect ones own self image  Gender Differences in Communication o Differences in communication styles influence the way which men and women are treated in the workplace.  Originates from childhood and centers around a “one up, one down” position o Men are most concerned with power dynamics and use communication as a way to put them in a one up situation o Women are more concerned with rapport building and communicate in a way that avoids putting others down  This results in women being in a one down situation, which has negative effects on the rewards they receive and their careers. o Key differences placing women in one down situations:  Getting credit  Men are more likely than women to blow their horn about something good they have done.  Confidence and boasting  Men tend to be more boastful about themselves and their capabilities and to minimize their doubts.  Asking questions  Men are less likely to ask questions.  Apologies  Men avoid ritual apologies because it is a sign of weakness.  Feedback  Men are more blunt and straightforward.  Compliments  Women are more likely to provide compliments.  Ritual opposition  Men often use ritual opposition as a form of communication and to exchange ideas.  Managing up and down  Men spend much more time communicating with their superiors and talking about their achievements.  Indirectness  Women tend to be indirect when giving orders. o These differences almost always reflect negatively on women and place them in a one down position o Need to recognize people have different linguistic skills and be flexible so that you can adjust your style when necessary  Cross Culture Communication o Language differences  Speaking same language is no guarantee of perfect communication
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.