Chapter 10 NOTES.docx

9 Pages
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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
Philosophy 3420F/G
Professor
Angela White

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Description
Chapter 10- Communication  What is communication o Communication: The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver.  Interpersonal communication is between two people  Simplest prototype, is one on one communication between two people o Model of the communication process  Thinking  Purchasing manager thinks, “I think we’re getting short on A- 40s.”  Encoding  Purchasing manger keyboards memo to assistant requesting that he/she order A-40s.  Transmitting  Purchasing manager sends memo by email.  Perceiving  Assistant reads memo  Decoding  Checks parts catalogue to find out what an A-40 is.  Understanding  Assistant realizes that he must place an order for flange bolts.  Feedback  Assistant sends the manager a copy of the order.  Demonstrates a number of points where errors can occur o Effective Communication: Communication whereby the right people receive the right information in a timely manner.  Violating any of these 3 conditions results in a communication episode that is ineffective.  Basics of Organizational Communication o Chain of command: Lines of authority and formal reporting relationships  3 forms:  Downward Communication: Information that flows from the top of the organization toward the bottom  Vice president -> manager > employees  Upward Communication: Information that flows from the bottom of the organization toward the top  Employee > manager > Vice president  Horizontal communication: Information that flows between departments or functional units usually as a means of coordinating effort.  Flows up to and down from a common manger. o Deficiencies in the chain of command.  Informal Communication  Chain of command does not consider informal communication. It helps people accomplish their jobs more effectively. Not always beneficial for the company  Filtering: The tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission.  Occurs both upward and downward and potential increases with the number of links in communication  Organization will establish channels to prevent: o Open door policy: The opportunity for employees to communicate directly with a manager without going through the chain of command. (Preventing upward filtering) o To prevent downward filtering organizations attempt to communicate directly with potential receivers, bypassing the chain of command.  Slowness  The chain of command can be very slow and an inefficient way to quickly react to customer problems o Cross-functional teams and employee empowerment have been used to improve communication by short- circuiting the chain of command.  Manager-Employee Communication  The one on one exchange of information between a boss and employee  Key element in upwards/downwards communication  Perceptions that managers are good communicators tend to be correlated positively with organizational performance. o How good is the manager-employee communication  Managers and employees often differ in their perceptions of the following issues:  How employees should and do allocate time.  How long it takes to learn a job.  The importance employees attach to pay.  The amount of authority the employee has.  The employee’s skills and abilities.  The employee’s performance and obstacles to good performance.  The manager’s leadership style.  These differences suggest a lack of openness in communication, which contributes to role conflict and ambiguity and reduces employee satisfaction. o Barriers to effective communication  Conflicting role demands  Leadership requires both task and social-emotional functions. Difficulties balancing the two.  Two separate messages focus on each aspect individual is more effective than one focusing on both  Mum effect: The tendency to avoid communicating unfavorable news to others.  More likely when sender is responsible for bad news  Applies to both management and employees  The Grape Vine o Grapevine: An organizations informal communication network  Cuts across formal communication, not just through word of mouth.  Transmits information relevant to the performance of the organization as well as personal gossip  Personal and emotionally charged information is most likely to be distorted (75% non controversial info is correct)  Only a portion of those who receive the information pass it on o Who participates?  Personality plays a role- extraverts more likely, same with people who lack self esteem and the info gives them a personal advantage.  The nature of the info influences who shares it  The physical location (high traffic work stations, constant moving positions mailman) is related to who passes on the information o Pros  Can keep employees informed on organizational matters  Can be used to test reactions, with out making a formal change.  Can serve as informal recruiting source o Cons  Pipeline for rumors  Rumor: An unverified belief that is in general circulation  Spread fastest when information is ambiguous, content is important, seems credible and recipient is anxious  No verification of accuracy can lead to rumors being distorted as they are shared.  The Verbal Language of Work o Jargon: Specialized language used by jobholders or members of particular occupations or organizations.  Its an efficient way to communicate with peers and provides a touch of status to those who have mastered it.  Can also serve as a barrier between departments and its intimidating to new members  The Non-Verbal Language o Non-verbal communication: The transmission of messages by some medium other than speech or writing.  Body Language: Non-verbal communication by means of a senders bodily motions, facial expressions or physical location.  Conveys two important messages  The extent to which the sender likes and is interested in the receiver  The sender’s views concerning the relative status of the sender and the receiver.  Senders communicate liking and interest in the receiver when they: o Position themselves physically close to the receiver. o Touch the receiver during the interaction. o Maintain eye contact with the receiver. o Lean forward during the interaction. o Direct the torso toward the receiver  Senders who feel themselves to be of a higher status then the receiver act more relaxed o The casual, asymmetrical placement of arms and legs o A reclining, non-erect seating position; and o A lack of fidgeting and nervous activity.  The greater the difference is relaxation the more they communicate a status differential to each other.  This could include showing our true feelings, “editing” our feelings, or trying to actively deceive others.  One area where body language has an impact is on the outcome of employment interview decisions.  Increased body language might give the edge to applicants who are otherwise equally well qualified o Props, artifacts and costumes can also contribute to communication  Office Décor and Arrangement  Conveys information about occupant  Personal decorations, neatness and a desk placed against the wall made student more comfortable in professor’s offices.  Middle managers have been found to use office décor to “profile” the identity and status of office occupants.  Clothing  Sends signals about competence, seriousness and promotibility  Does communicate but only partly as the clothes affect ones own self image  Gender Differences in Communication o Differences in communication styles influence the way which men and women are treated in the workplace.  Originates from childhood and centers around a “one up, one down” position o Men are most concerned with power dynamics and use communication as a way to put them in a one up situation o Women are more concerned with rapport building and communicate in a way that avoids putting others down  This results in women being in a one down situation, which has negative effects on the rewards they receive and their careers. o Key differences placing women in one down situations:  Getting credit  Men are more likely than women to blow their horn about something good they have done.  Confidence and boasting  Men tend to be more boastful about themselves and their capabilities and to minimize their doubts.  Asking questions  Men are less likely to ask questions.  Apologies  Men avoid ritual apologies because it is a sign of weakness.  Feedback  Men are more blunt and straightforward.  Compliments  Women are more likely to provide compliments.  Ritual opposition  Men often use ritual opposition as a form of communication and to exchange ideas.  Managing up and down  Men spend much more time communicating with their superiors and talking about their achievements.  Indirectness  Women tend to be indirect when giving orders. o These differences almost always reflect negatively on women and place them in a one down position o Need to recognize people have different linguistic skills and be flexible so that you can adjust your style when necessary  Cross Culture Communication o Language differences  Speaking same language is no guarantee of perfect communication
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