Study Guides (238,408)
Canada (115,131)
Philosophy (363)
Mark Cole (1)

Psychology 1100E Final Exam.docx

40 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Philosophy 1020
Mark Cole

Psychology Final Exam Chapter 4 MOLECULAR GENETICS • Examining cells and the DNA and genes within cells Genetic Myths • Genes set limits on your behaviour ­ Belief you are disposed to certain genetics and there is nothing you can do ­ Can alter genetic dispositions through environmental factors ­ Ex: eyesight ▯ nearsightedness, but by introducing glasses it overrides the genetic disposition (no limits) • Biological influences are genetic ­ environmental biological influences (not genetic)▯ drugs, medications ­ Ex: anti-depressant relieve depression from people who are genetically depressed but it is changed through biological influences but that are not genetic Nature and Nurture • Used to be two competing ideas on what affects genetics • In 20 century these two ideas were merged • Nature via nurture • Genetic and biological influences work together to produce behaviour • Genotype ▯ genetic disposition • Phenotype ▯ characteristics you express are a function of environmental influence (Vp = Vg + Ve) ex: genetics + environment = performance Gene Environment Correlation • Genes affect the environment which in turns affects the behaviour • Two types 1) Active ▯ when genetic predisposition leads you to actively seek out certain environment that will enhance predisposition. Ex) predisposed to higher intelligence will read books, do puzzles increasing intelligence 2) Reactive ▯ when other [people react to your genotype and provide environmental differences that will affect behaviour. ex: if more intelligence, the teachers will provide them with more information causing even more intelligence • Problem is when irrelevant trait causes environmental change which in turn affects behaviour. Ex: teachers give more books to children who are attractive; attractiveness is a genetic predisposed • Not really genetic influences on intelligence rather on physical attractiveness, leading to differential treatment Molecular Genetics • Study of genetic influences on behavour by examining DNA and Genes • Darwin, DeVries and Mendel (1800’s) ­ Darwin believed genetics were based on evolution by natural selection and mutation; only the fittest survive ­ Darwin’s First Deduction ­ Given That: o Organisms have an enormous capacity to overproduce, and… o Populations, with few exceptions, remain remarkably stable… ­ We can deduce that: o There is a struggle for survival ­ ie finches identical all throughout islands but have different beaks ­ Darwin’s Second Deduction ­ Given that: o individuals differ in their characteristics and many of these differences are heritable… ­ We can deduce that: o Those individuals who possess adaptive characteristics will reproduce more successfully that those who don’t and will pass on these characteristics to their offspring ­ Darwin’s Legacy - we can understand much (not all) of human behaviour through genetic study - it was only 50 years later that the discovery of the work of MENDEL on inheritance led to the development of Mendelian genetics and a mechanism whereby natural selection could operate -Mendel was a monk who begins to understand who things were passed down ­ Mendel’s Experiments ­ - The transmission of genes and characteristics across… ­ - Expressed and hidden elements are transmitted ­ - Dominant and recessive traits… and genes ­ - always wrinkly + always round = always round ­ - round dominant over wrinkly ­ - Phenotypes: outward physical expression of those genes ­ - Genotypes: genetics (or traits) ­ Mendel’s Principles - There are discrete units of cross-generational transmission – heredity – now called genes ­ Each gene makes a unique contribution to what is passed on to offspring DeVries examined genetic laws and while examining background research found Mendels studies and citied him ­ Genetic variations is often found through mutations ­ 1/10 reproductions are mutations; ex: greater vs. less intelligence • Two Principles of Genetics 1) Segregation ▯ dominant genes express themselves ex: eye colour (dark colour express themselves ▯ recessive genes you need to inherit from each of parent 2) Independence ▯ different characteristics are influences by different genes • dominant and recessive genes (eye colour) • cells have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) and chromosomes are molecules of DNA which carry genes • genes influence the production of proteins (70,000); proteins affect biochemistry therefore affecting behaviour • polygenic transmission is the influence of multiple genes all operating on single characteristics. Ex: need multiple genes therefore varying intelligence (half that enhance, half inhibit causing moderate intelligence) • usually have a bell curve Human Genome Project (1990-2001) • Attempt to map the genetic code of humans • Human code is made up of 3.1 billion genes • Problem is we know the location and how many genes there are, but not sure of all of their functions • Leads to genetic engineering when we remove a gene from a chromosome and Recombinant DNA ▯ replace it with another one; see the affect of genes • Allows us to determine what particular genes do • Gene knockout ▯ is taking out affect of a particular gene • Genetic screening ▯ know certain disorders are genetic and can screen parents to see if they have the genes leading to offspring with disorder. Ex: PKU is mental retardation which can be reproduced • Genetic counseling ▯ counseling about genetic predispositions and what will happen if they are to reproduce • Cloning ▯ reproducing an entire organism; led to ethical issues Biological Reaction Range • false belief that genetics determine limits of behavior • ex: IQ ▯ genetics set limits on IQ and based on environment this can be affected • belief there is not upper or lower limit set by genetics • environmental factors can override genetic factors very easily • ex: speed which you move; through practice there is no limit in how fast you can more (get into car); environment overrides genetic limitations • environmental biological influences ▯ drug affects produced by environment Evolution and Behavior • Evolution is the leading theory in the origin of species • Darwin produced mechanism of evolution which can be tested and verified • Creationism and seeding are other theories which cannot be tested • Adaptations of genes lead to evolution and can be altered overtime • Ex: basic emotions have genetic basis which can be seen throughout many species • Ex: Infants have the innate ability to learn any language no matter of the location they are in • Language is harder to change than changing vision or hair colour Genetics andAltruism • problem for Darwin since it did not seem that an organism would put itself at risk for another organism • is survival of the fittest gene and will survive to the next generation • Kin selection theory ▯ tend to help people who are genetically related to us • Reciprocal altruism theory ▯ reciprocate when people help us we will help them Genetics andAggression • Predatory and DefensiveAggression ▯ linked to genetic affects and carry across difference species • Dominance hierarchies ▯ within species (ex: leader of pack) • Within-species aggression and gangs can be formed • Tend to aggress against people who are genetically dissimilar to us Genetics and Personality • Dopamine transporter gene linked to extraversion • Serotonin transporter gene linked to neuroticism • Both are neurotransmitters that affect human behaviour • Problem is that transporter gene only accounts for 3-4% of variance of gene • polygenic transmission Genetics and Dyslexia • gene on chromosome 6 linked to dyslexia • gene affects brain development • less activation of the left temporal lobe (affects language) Genes and Behaviour – Chromosomes - Choromosomes: - the book of blueprints for the entire building - 23 pairs in human cell - Except reproductive cell – gametes have single pairs - 23 pair is the sex chromosome – X and Y - Molecule of DNA – contains many genes - women only x’s, males x and y - women can only make all women, males can give in x or y - Genotype: - specific genetic makeup - present from conception - never changes - Phenotype: - observable characteristics - can be altered by environmental factors - ie how tall you “can” grown vs how tall you “actually” grow - Biological Reaction Range: - wiggle room for environment to change Dominant, Recessive and Polygenetic - So why aren’t genotype and phenotype always identical? - Details of mechanism of genetic inheritance Genetic Mechanism of Inheritance - 1 chromosome of each pair from each parent Alleles: - DominantAllele – always expressed in phenotype - RecessiveAllele – Only expressed in homozygous pairs of alleles - Genetic Mutations- almost always maladaptive - Can be illustrated in genetic disorders Genetic Disorders – Tay-Sachs - Dysfunctional Protein: breakdown of fats in brain - Early onset - seizures, blindness, mental dysfunction, death in the early childhood - Recessive gene Huntington’s Chorea: - Protein builds up in nervous system cells, killing key cells in basal ganglia and cortex - Movement disorders, complete behavioural breakdown and death - Late onset - Dominant gene Genetic Counseling - Genetic Counselors offer? - medical information about genetic disorders and risks - help make decisions about their health, pregnancies, or their child’s health care Genetic Engineering - Mapping the Genetic Code - Human Genome Project (1990) - Not a new phenomenon - ie selective breeding in wolves – wolves = dog breeds - maintaining spontaneous mutations - research mice, fancy pigeons - Cloning – Molecular techniques - Nucleus of adult cell implanted unfertilized egg, identical offspring Gene Knockout: - particular function of gene is eliminated Problem: - Few behaviours are controlled by single gene The Next Topic… - understanding and qualifying - the gene – behaviour relation - twin studies, how much from behaviour and how much genetics Nature/Nurture –Apseudo question?? - Natural tendency to look for “one or the other” answers - Often politically, religiously or culturally motivated - ie IQ, women’s rights, gay rights, aggression - The question makes no sense.. - natureAND nurture - Even “natural” tendencies or characteristics are not immutable… - ie gender roles, aggression IQ Scores – The Political Context… - Intelligence – Environment or genes?! - answer has always been influenced by political forces - social classes, immigration, social policy IQ – Genetic Transmission - Geontypic trait may be very different from those expressed in phenotype - influences of experiences Heredity and Changeability –Another Example - PKU – Phenylketonuria - Genetically encoded, inherited disorder - Avoided by experiential intervention - Certain food causes problem with neurodevelopment - Experience presents expression of genotype in phenotype BEHAVIOUR GENETICS • Resemblance among family members to make inferences on the relation based on genetic influences • If family members are similar and share similar genes, behaviours can have a genetic component • Started in late 1800’s by Galton • a study between successful and unsuccessful families • if one relative was successful, usually another one would be as well • parents and children are similar in behaviour due to genetics • with genetic influence on characteristics then genes will be passed down • if they are similar, then they must be genetic influence • critics pointed out that it can be due not only to genetics but environments as well; parents providing more opportunity through successes Heritability Coefficient • a numerical estimate of the percentage of variability in the characteristic due to genetics • Ranked based on a 100 scale • Darwin believed in similarities in characteristics of similar species • Galton tried to find genetic affects on physical and psychological characteristics (intelligence); suggested to look at twins separated at birth with separate environments • Burt collected data on identical twins separated at birth and measured similarity in adulthood; if they are still similar it must be due to genetics and not environment (found that he fabricated most of his data) • Concordance rate: rate of co-occurance of a characteristic among individuals • higher rates among individuals who are more highly related to one another = possible genetic contribution • but how to disentangle shared genes and shared experience? Separated twins • Eysenck and Rushton conducted real research and found a genetic component to behaviour (estimates were highly related to made up data) • 40% of variability in behaviour is due to genetics (intelligence 50%, environmental 50%) • Shared environmental influence ▯ shared environment within a family • Non-shared environmental influence ▯ happen individually, not with family (90% are non- shared) • Led to political mistakes based on faulty assumptions on genetic effects ­ eugenics is the idea of controlled breeding ­ can breed people to be intelligent ­ also suggest we should alter social policy; split education into O andAlevel ­ based on false assumption that if behaviour is based on genetics, it cant be changed; environment can affect this Limitations of Heritability Coefficient • Applies to variation in behavior between individuals in a specific sample at a particular time (heritability estimates can vary widely) • Does not apply to absolute levels of behavior; absolute levels can be due to either genetics or environment (not sure) • Does not apply to differences between groups. ex)whites not smarter than blacks • Inflated by false gene-environment correlation (not really relevant and shouldn’t be considered a genetic influence); when your predisposition leads to different environments therefore affecting behaviour. Ex) physical attractiveness ▯ more attention from teacher leading to differences in intelligence Environmental Biological Influences • Environmental affects can be biological; even if there is a genetic component, it can be overcome by the environments biological influences • Various drugs can highly influence certain characteristics • Chlorpromazine reduces symptoms of schizophrenia • Depression and anxiety are reduced by drugs • Recreational drugs (caffeine, alcohol, etc) influence behavior Biology and Behavior • All behavior is biological • There are natural laws that determine behaviour and can be examined through research; assumption is that the is “no free will” • Choices are determined by determinants we have no affect over • Differences in behavior are due to differences in activity of the nervous system • Activity of the nervous system is influenced by genes and the environment • Environmental factors can change genetically determined behaviors • The more we learn about genetics, the better able we will be to modify behavior • Nurture is human nature “Flynn Effect” - people are getting higher IQ scores every generation - every decade or so the average score goes up by about 3 points - one of the big contributors is better healthcare - higher technology exposes us to more information - brings us from the low end of biological reaction range and brings it to the higher end Chapter 14 – Personality Personality - the thoughts, feelings, and actions that reflect your personality have 3 characteristics: 1. identity: you are like no one else 2. internal causes: it’s inside you, not the environment - personality should be fairly stable 3. organized: the pattern “fits together”, has meaning The Psychodynamic Approach • Look for the causes of behaviour in a dynamic interplay of inner forces that often conflict with one another. • Freud believed the unconscious part of the mind influences behaviour • Plato argued that the mind was structured in three parts: 1) Appetite 2) Reason 3) Spirit • Freud started his work in 1900 and said that the mind is body (no soul –Aristotle) – essentially the nervous system Freud’s Structures of Personality • Divided personality into three separate but interacting structures: 1) ID (appetite) ▯ pleasure principle (seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations and environmental realities). o exists totally within the unconscious mind o innermost core of the personality o the only structure present at birth o the source of all psychic energy o has no direct contact with reality o functions in a totally irrational manner o Ex) “want…take!” 2) EGO (reason) ▯ reality principle (the egos tendency to take reality factors into account and to act in a rational fashion in need satisfaction). o tests reality to decide when and under what conditions the ID can safely discharge its impulses and satisfy its needs o Ex) the ego would seek sexual gratification within a consenting relationship rather than allowing the pleasure principle to dictate an impulsive sexual assault on the first person who happened by 3) SUPEREGO (spirit) ▯ internalized morality of society o Two parts: conscious and rewards o Developed through childhood and through interaction with society o the moral arm of the personality o contains traditional values and ideals of society o ideals are internalized by the child through identification with his or her parents, who also use reinforcement and punishment to teach the child with is “right”, “wrong”, and what “should” be o with development of the superego, self-control is substituted for external control o tries to block gratification permanently o moralistic goals take precedence over realistic ones, regardless of the potential cost to the individual o strives to control the instincts of the id o Ex) in a sense, the id says “I want” and the superego replies “don’t you dare, that would be evil” Psychosexual Development • Freud proposed the children pass through a series of psychosexual stages during which the ids pleasure-seeking tendencies are focused on specific pleasure-sensitive areas of the body called erogenous zones. • Psychosexual Stages - stages of development in which psychic energy is focused on certain body parts; the major childhood stages are the oral, anal, and phallic stages; experiences during these stages are assumed to shape personality development. 1) Oral Stage ­ only the ID is present ­ occurs during infancy ▯ 0-2 years ­ erogenous zone: mouth ▯ gain primary satisfaction from taking in food and from sucking on a breast, a thumb, or some other object; very dependent on others 2) Anal Stage ­ EGO develops ­ occurs between the ages of 2-3 ­ erogenous zone: anus ▯ pleasure becomes focused on the process of elimination ­ during toilet training, the child is faces with society’s first attempt to control a biological urge 3) Phallic Stage ­ SUPEREGO develops ­ Oedipal Complex (castration anxiety): the male children experience erotic feelings toward his mother, desires to posses her sexuality, and vies his father as a rival ­ Electra Complex (penis envy): the female version of the Oedipus Complex in which the girl child experiences erotic feelings toward her father, desires to posses him sexually, and views her mother as a rival ­ occurs between the ages of 4-6 ­ erogenous zone: genitals ­ children begin to derive pleasure from their sexual organs ­ Freud believed that the phallic stage is a major milestone in the development of gender identity ­ Go against these when you go towards what is socially expectable 4) Latency Stage ­ Strengthens the superego and do what is expected based on sex roles ­ sexuality becomes dormant for about 6 years ­ a stage that occurs near the end of the phallic stage at the age of 6- 12 (occurs until puberty) ­ the key task is to develop social relationships 5) Genital Stage ­ erotic impulses find direct expression in sexual relationships ­ adult sexuality; ego tries to satisfy the ID impulses ­ occurs once puberty has occurred (usually 12+) ­ erogenous zone: genitals ­ the key task is to develop mature social and sexual relationships Conflict,Anxiety and Defence • Anxiety serves as a danger signal and motivates the ego to deal with the problem at hand. • It is the result of the ego confronting impulses that threaten to get out of control or are faced with dangers from the environment. • Two types of anxiety are: - Reality Anxiety ▯ external (ex: train coming towards you) - Neurotic Anxiety ▯ internal (id-superego conflict) • Defence Mechanisms - unconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression of anxiety-arousing impulses or allows them to appear in disguised forms; used to cope with anxiety and denies or distorts reality - Repression o an active defensive process through which anxiety arousing impulses or memories are pushed into the unconscious mind o Ex) a person who was sexually abused in childhood develops amnesia for the event - Displacement o an unacceptable or dangerous impulse is repressed, then directed at a safer substitute target o Ex) a man who is harassed by his boss experiences no anger at work, then goes home and abuses his wife and children - Reaction Formation o an anxiety-arousing impulse is repressed and its psychic energy finds release in an exaggerated expression of the opposite behaviour o Ex) a mother who harbours feelings of hatred for her child represses them and becomes over protective of the child - Projection o an unacceptable impulse is repressed, then attributed to (projected onto) other people o Ex) a woman with strong repressed desires to have an affair continually accuses her husband of being unfaithful to her - Rationalization o a person constructs a false but plausible explanation or excuse for an anxiety- arousing behaviour or event that has already occurred o Ex) a student caught cheating on an exam justifies the act by pointing out that the professor’s tests are unfair, and besides, everybody else was cheating, too. Psychoanalysis • Intensive therapy over years • Root to the unconscious was through dream analysis; unconscious urges try to come out in symbolic form • Two levels to a dream: manifest context (superficial) and latent content (underlying) • Free association would lead to the unconscious revealing itself • Projective Tests ­ Designed to get at the unconscious; project unconscious motives into test answers; contrasted with objective tests ­ Believed that the basis of personality is often unconscious ­ ThematicApperception Test (TAT) ▯ showing people pictures of others doing ambiguous things; asked to write a story about it; project your unconscious motives onto what you say is occurring ­ Rorschach Inkblots ▯ shown an inkblot and asked to say what you see in the picture; put unconscious motives onto interpretation • Reactions ­ Resistance ▯ will tell people it is only what is on the surface; conscious mind doesn’t want to get the unconscious thoughts ­ Insight ▯ patient convinced of unconscious wishes and desired; achieve insight into unconscious ­ Catharsis ▯ release of unconscious conflict into conscious mind; no longer need for ego to set up defense mechanism and therefore cured of neurotic anxiety TraitApproach - tries to find correlations in behaviours then list them as traits of behaviours - places people on a continuum of extreme introversion and extreme extroversion - Kattel: - 16 basic personality factors - reserved, outgoing, submissive, dominant, tough-minded, sensitive…. - can make assumptions on behaviours based on these scores Objective Structured Tests • California Psychological Inventory (CPI) ­ Involves 20 traits • Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) ­ Measure 16 traits ­ Basic personality characteristics ­ Cluster into 5 areas • Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) ­ Measure 3 traits 1) Extroversion 2) Neuroticism 3) Psychoticism The Five Factor Model • Five “higher-order” factors are all needed to capture the basic structure of personality; universal to the human species • OCEAN ▯ Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism • Many variations that can occur from the blending of 5 dimensions History and Four Types 1) Hippocrates (400 BCE) • Bodily fluids (humors) o Blood – Sanguine (Impulsive) o Yellow Bile –Choleric (Angry) o Black Bile – Melancholic (Depressed) o Phlegm – Phlegmatic (Lazy) 2) Jung • Extroversion & Emotion o Thinking Extrovert - Sanguine o Feeling Extrovert – Choleric o Feeling Introvert - Melancholic o Thinking Introvert - Phlegmatic 3) Eysenck • Extroversion & Neuroticism ­ CNS Arousal o Introverts have higher arousal of CNS o Don’t seek out stimulation o Behave in reserve fashion o Extroverts have lower arousal of CNS o Seek out stimulation o More outgoing & active ­ PNS Arousal o Neuroticism o More arousal of PNS – the more anxious o Lower arousal of PNS – the less anxious o Calm – Extrovert – Sanguine o Anxious – Extrovert –Choleric o Anxious -Introvert – Melancholic o Calm – Introvert –Phlegmatic 4) Gray • BehaviorActivation System (BAS) ­ Leads to approach behavior ­ The more activated behavior – the more you will approach goals • Behavior Inhibition System (BIS) ­ Avoidance of behavior ­ The more inhibited behavior – the more avoid situations ­ LowAvoidance – HighApproach (Reckless) ­ HighAvoidance – LowApproach (Depressed) ­ HighAvoidance – LowApproach (Lazy) ­ LowAvoidance – LowApproach - Lay Research Personality Traits and Performance • Rusting (1999) ­ Personality & Memory ­ Based on Gray ­ Extroversion correlate with recall positive ­ 150 psychology students ­ 3 lists: 12 positive, 12 negative, 12 neutral ­ EPQ measure Extro & Neuroticism ­ Extrovery ▯ Recall of Positive (BAS) ­ Neuroticism ▯ Recall of Negative (BIS) ­ Intro – Recall less positive • Revelle, Humphrey, Simon & Gilliland (1980) ­ Personality & Cognitive performance ­ Caffeine creates change in personality ­ EPI measure extroversion ­ Groups: Caffeine & Placebo ­ Times: Morning &Afternoon ­ Morning o Without Caffeine o Introverts ▯ Optimal arousal o Extroverts ▯ Below optical arousal o With caffeine o Extroverts ▯ higher optical arousal o Introverts ▯ Below optical arousal ­ Afternoon o Without Caffeine o Introverts ▯ Below optical arousal o Extroverts ▯ Optimal arousal o With Caffeine o Introverts ▯ Optimal arousal o Extroverts ▯ Below optical arousal ­ Feel under arousal ▯ take caffeine to bring up to optimal ­ Already aroused ▯ shouldn’t take caffeine ­ Caffeine affect arousal to affect performance ­ Extroverted (active), drink coffee in the morning ▯ IncreaseArousal ­ Introverted (passive), drink coffee in the afternoon ▯ IncreaseArousal Behavioural CognitionApproach • [S-O-R-C] ▯ Stimulus, Organism, Response, Consequence • Focus on environmental influence • Influences affect our personalities • External causes rather than internal causes of personality • Pavlov & Watson (1920) ­ Classical Conditioning ▯ Stimulus & Response ­ Deals with involuntary behavior ­ Ex. Pavlov Dog & Salivating • Skinner (1930) ­ Operant Conditioning ▯ Response & Consequence ­ Reinforcement ­ Positive & Negative reinforcement ­ Affect responses Social Cognition (Learning) • Rotter ­ focused on the performance of behaviour and why we participate in certain behaviours ­ equation where behaviour potential is a combination of expectancies and reinforcement values BP=f(ExRV) ­ reinforcement values are subjective and can vary within people ­ develop stable patterns of expectancies which learned to stable patterns of behaviour or personality ­ ex) Mahrer o whether or not expectancies affect behaviour potential o show that reinforcement itself was not the best predictor of behaviour o 8, 9 year old boys separated into high, medium and low expectancies o cut out pictures in magazine and glue onto Bristol board (balloon is reward) o manipulation was how often they got the balloon o on last day were told they could wait the weekend for a flying saucer with higher reinforcement value, or take airplane immediately o expectancies played a big role in how they behaved o low expectancy = airplane, high expectancy = saucer • Bandura ­ focused on observational learning; learn behaviours through observation ­ imitate models behaviours rather than being reinforced directly for behaviours ­ focus is on the cognitive aspects ­ 4 components: 1) attention ▯ attending to model your trying to imitate (sensation and perception) 2) retention ▯ be able to retain what you see model do (learning and memory) 3) motor reproduction ▯ ability to reproduce behaviour (action 4) motivation ▯ to perform behaviour (to avoid or approach a behaviour) ­ observation and vicarious reinforcement causes behaviour (observe others getting reward for things and we expect to get the same rewards) ­ phobias are produced through observational learning rather than negative experiences and being conditioned to fear the object ­ ex) Bobo Doll Study o tried to show observational learning takes place and vicarious reinforcement affects behaviour o distinction between acquisition of behaviour and reinforcement o took 4 year olds and separated into reward, control and punishment groups o show film of aggressive behaviours with a Bobo doll (sit and punch, hit, throw balls) o in one of the conditions they were rewarded for behaviour and by watching this direct reinforcement it becomes indirect for them o when put in a room with the doll they behaved the way in which the video had shown them to o 1/3- 1/2 of personality traits are due to genetics, ½ is due to environment HumanisticApproach - falls on self reports - not very scientific because you can’t measure what they are talking about • Rogers ­ how we feel about ourselves ­ Phenomenal field (perceived reality)– what is important in influencing behaviour is our perception of reality instead of actual reality; everyone perceives the world differently ­ Achieving personal growth and self actualization is the basic motive for human personality ­ Unconditional positive regard – basic need for positive regard; way to achieve it is from receiving positive regard from people in life ­ Conditions of worth - putting conditions on positive regard can impede human growth; placing these on children is negative as it should be unconditional regard leading to high self-esteem ­ Measured self esteem through interviews and what people said about themselves ­ Self-esteem inventories - questionnaires that measure self-esteem and self-worth ­ Self esteem causes anxiety; self esteem is a discrepancy between ones real self and their ideal self ­ Client-centered therapy – to reduce anxiety and create congruence between real self and ideal self; can be done by altering real self or ideal self perceptions ­ Tested people by having them rate themselves and correlating these results; if congruence then there would be a high correlation • Kelly ­ how we think about ourselves ­ Personal constructs - try to predict the world by developing personal opinions (dichotomous) about things in the world; don’t make distinctions based on degrees rather than trait dimensions ex) good or bad, talkative vs. quiet ­ Role Constructs Repertory Test (REP)– designed to illicit the dimensions from the individual rather than them having rate predetermined dimensions ­ Come up with constructs that classify family members; develop personal constructs rather than them being based on others options ­ Anxiety is caused by non-predictive constructs ­ Fix role therapy – use different constructs and role playing technique to see you can predict behaviour better with a greater number of personal constructs; focus on how we think about ourselves and how we see ourselves as similar or different to others • Maslow ­ how we feel and think ­ Hierarchy of needs 1) Physiological needs – (deficiency) 2) Safety needs – (deficiency) 3) Belongingness and love needs – (deficiency) *****Many people stop once they have reached this point 4) Esteem needs – (being/growth) 5) Cognitive andAesthetic needs – (being/growth) 6) Self-actualization needs (peak experiences) – (being/growth) Humanistic Eastern Philosophy • Lao Tsu ­ how we feel about ourselves ­ Taosim (Daoism) – the way of life and feeling at one with nature; yin and yang ­ Tendency of all organisms to try to grow and mature • Confucius ­ How we think about ourselves ­ Confucianism - how to organize self and society ­ Anxiety is caused by confusion or ignorance of the world ­ The Great Learning (self-actualization) 1) Investigate things 2) Extend knowledge 3) Sincere will 4) Rectified mind 5) Cultivate personal life 6) Regulate family 7) Order the state 8) Peace in the world • Siddhartha ­ how we feel and think ­ Buddhism – all things are impermanent (annica); things are always changing ­ Anxiety is caused by self who likes consistency and routine when we are stuck in a changing world ­ Control anxiety through breathing and yoga ­ Get rid of sense of self and feelings of approach and avoidance ­ To detach ourselves think of 4 foundations of mindfulness: 1) body 2) feelings 3) thoughts 4) mental objects ­ Eightfold Path (way to enlightenment or self-actualization) 1) Wisdom ▯ right understanding and thinking of the world 2) Morality ▯ right speech, action and livelihood 3) Discipline ▯ right effort, mindfulness, concentration NeoAnalysts (Adler and Jung) - Said that our personalities change as we experience things in our lives - Unconscious mind, while important, is not the only factor -Also have the problem with Freud’s infantile sexuality - Freud isn’t taking into account the fact we are shaped by the people we interact with and our culture - Freud talks about people like we are wild animals - Neo analysts say that we are good animals, care for others, can place others well beings above our own -Adler believes we do things for others because we think we aren’t quite good enough - we are always trying to compensate for the defects we have - Jung says not only personal unconscious, but also the collective unconscious - collective unconscious: the unconscious that has culminated over the history of time - these common things are called archetypes, commonalities like a higher power, a good mother, - also have mental frameworks called schemas, can think of a priest in detail without having to see them - if people break our mental representation, it will become skewed - ie bad caregiver, our mental representation will be off the mark, leading to relationship problems Chapter 13 – Social Psychology Mistakes ofAttribution - Man had head and chest sensations - he believed the cause was people on Neptune trying to communicate with him - the dangers of reading science fiction - losing the poker game caused an increase of reporting symptoms - are error of attribution - believes things outside of himself are the cause of the symptoms - this man simply has an odd solution to his chest pains - only has science fiction to turn to explain problems in his life - when put on medication to control his high blood pressure, all symptoms stop FundamentalAttribution Error (field study) - The Rosenhan Study (1973) “Being sane in insane places” - published in an important scientific journal - On being sane in insane places -Acase of self-fulfilling prophecy - to press a rape charge is to also be blamed for doing something wrong - juries engage in fundamental attribution error - Once diagnosed…. - …. When can you ever claim sanity? - what happens when normal people are placed in situation with only crazy people? - presented one symptom at mental hospital as pseudo-patients - they had been hearing a “thud” like sound for no reason - b/c thuds have never discussed - placed in care for 10 days - how long does it take for professionals to decide someone has been “cured” - all discharged with diagnosis: sczophrenia within remission - time in hospital varied from 9-31 days - everyone else is psychotic, so you too are - all took notes, no one gave a damn about what they were taking notes - note taking looked “obsessive or compulsive” - don’t pay attention to what the patients say, don’t answer questions - this study challenged psychiatrists work methods - did a second challenge, telling the psychiatrists that he would send our new pseudo patients - a great number of people were released as normal - but Rosenhan didn’t actually plant any pseudo patients - were they overzealous or just in releasing these people? - Why does this occur? - because of perspective, we see others, but can’t see ourselves - see “you” as the cause of “your” behaviour - see external factors when worrying about our own behaviour - the FUNDAMENAL difference between perspectives Experiment aboutAttributions - experiment to help insomniacs - they blame themselves - then given a pill - Experimental Groups 1. Control Group: given nothing 2. Placebo Group: given baking soda as a drug 3. Upper: amphetamine (to keep them awake and alert) - symptoms of anxiety, heart races, 4. Downer: sleep oriented meds 5. Placebo Upper: look the same as upper pills (but just baking soda) - going to feel symptoms of alert, anxious, etc 6. Placebo Downer: look like the downer pills - group that got the upper went to sleep the fastest… - so relieved that the symptoms are from the pill and not yourself, you are calmed and put to sleep - then placebo upper, then real downer, then placebo downer - important where we attribute the causes of behaviour Two Famous Studies 1. The Milgram Study 2. The Stanford Prison Experiment The Migram Study - questions asked as a consequence of the Second World War - how could a country like Germany be involved in the murder of 6million people because of their being Jewish - Germany was considered culturally sophisticated, highly educated, industrial country - looks like the ideal Western notion of success - most appalling: the realization that Germany has almost succeeded in killing all Jews, in a highly efficient manner - In Germany, authority in the family was hierarchical: father, mother, than children according to their birth order - could have been a contributing factor to the holocaust - Germans must have known what was happening to the Jews - complicity promoted by family structure - in an authoritarian family, the authority of the father is supreme - consequences for children: believe you MUST obey authority - if you have authority you EXPECT people to do what they’re told - makes the “authoritarian personality” - Milgram decided to carry out a study to see if Germans are more likely to differ to authority - set up a situation where students would be put in a position to do something that was completely outrageous - involves lies: described as a learning experiment (attempt to evaluate negative reinforcement) - Yale university students: one of the most prestigious universities in the US - getting into Yale means you are a very bright student - find that there are two students - Milgram comes out dressed as a lab coat, presents a cool demeanor - required to do a testing task, where you are supposed to paired associate task with lists of words - one student will do the test, and one student will be required to administer a shock if the student gets it wrong (the “teacher”) - the teacher is shown to professional looking piece of equipment with several toggle switches that release an electric current - under each switch, an indication of how many volts will be delivered (in 15 volt increments) - the chair the student sits in looks much like an electric chair, and this is shown to the “teacher” and electrodes will be attached to the wrists - an intercom allows communication between student and teacher rooms - now comes to the task of who will be learner, and who will be teacher - a concern of whether or not the teacher will deliver shock the more and more intense it becomes - to decide, who will be the learner or teacher, a coin is tossed (this is also a lie) - THE TRUTH: one of the students is a confederate of the researcher, and is a trained actor who is very good at acting like they are getting shocked - both learner and teacher are given a 45 volt shock so they know what it feels like - learner will be required to go all the way to xxx if they go along completely with the study - at 300 volts you hear the person complaining, not long after that, you hear nothing - Milgram says “the study must go on, and any non-answer is a mistake” - Milgram had no clue what the results would be - tried to get some sense by going to a conference of Psychiatrists - asked psychiatrists what percentage would go all the way to xxx, and what kind of people they would be like - believed no more than 5% would go all the way - and these people would likely be highly disturbed individuals - Milgram is amazed by what is carried out in the study - he predicted no more than 10% would go all the way - the actual number of the first study: 65% - 65% delivered shock that MIGHT have killed the person - no matter where in the world, the study has had the same results The Stanford Prison Experiment - Conducted by Phillip Zimbardo (respected, but often provocative) - initially interested to what happens to people when they become prisoners, and what happens to the people in charge of them (the guards) - in the news, usually hear of prison riots.And didn’t believe that the guards reacted as they should - the psychology department prisons: - made a fake jail in the psychology department building basement - has a real large cell with bars and locking mechanism - has a “yard” and room for visitors - has an office for the warden (Zimbardo would take on role of warden) - the participants: - took participants from undergrad at Stanford - had to demonstrate they were amongst best students in classes - had to take personality test to show they were emotionally stable - smartest and most stable were chosen. - the assignment of prison roles - were randomly assigned into either group, no one knew which they would be - told guards they were randomly selected beforehand, and allowed the guards to show up at the prison earlier to learn rules and get uniforms - wore mirrored glasses and an SS uniform in khaki - a big belt with a baton - given instructions: prisoners not allowed to talk unless talked to, no back talk, can use discretion based on what punishment is appropriate (suggested pushups), prisoners must seek permission to go to the washroom - Was aiming for realism - on the day the study began, the prisoners were actually arrested by the PaloAlto police force, and treated them the same way as they would an actual prisoner - the parents were concerned, and fell into role quickly (get a lawyer, etc) - greeted by warden (zimbardo) and by the guards - then issued their uniforms and they had to get naked in front of each other and the guards (a hospital gown you have to tie up at the back) - put into a large jail and expected them to be quiet - they started to mock the guards, singing freedom songs, treating it more of a joke - then a guard notices a fire hose behind a glass, talks with the guards, and threaten them with the hose. Finally they get the hose out, and blast it at the prisoners, which threw them against the wall (a dangerous situation was created, but the mood was set) - the guards - start to become very willing to use their discretion regarding punishment - very quickly got them to do pushups - escalated in intensity day after day - this makes the prisoners very depressed - one man gets seriously depressed - the warden - Zimbardo starts grilling the young man who was clinically depressed - his first impression: he’s trying to get out of the study - grills him in ways that are completely inappropriate - more concerned about a prison break than the emotional welfare of the man - There is a visitors day: - everyone fell into role, they were quiet, subdued, respectful of guards, - never said that the study should be over, encouraged them to get through - the visit of a friend to Zimbardo was met
More Less

Related notes for Philosophy 1020

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.