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Philosophy Review.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
Philosophy 1020
Professor
John Thorp
Semester
Winter

Description
Philosophy ReviewRELIGIONWhat is religionLudwig Wittgensteinnothing is universally correct very often our words and concepts back definition in the strict classical sensenot every member of a family have the same featuresa Huntergathererpolytheistic disorganized divorced from morality no connection to the meaning of lifeask them for a good hunt b Agriculturalshamanistic political divorced from morality high God people say God has given them special powers c Axial Agemonotheistic priestly political connected to morality connected to the meaning of lifetold how to lifeThe Ontological Argument Anselm of Canterbury Arch BishopThe argumentGod is that being than which non greater can be imaginedOther things being equal a being that exists is greater than one that does not existtherefore God existsthe fact that we define God as a being does not entail that God existsThe Trick of thought in the argumenta thing that exists is better than one that does not exista thing which exists in our minds exists in intellectua thing which exists in reality exists in reGod exists in intellectu otherwise we cant talk about hima being that exists in re is greater than something that exists in intellectuto be that being than which non greater can be imagined God must exist in re the fool hath said in his heart there is no Goda person who says that God does not exist is contradicting himselfthe very idea of God requires that God existsGaunilos objectionimagine an island which is more excellent than all known islandsbecause this island is more excellent that all know islands it must exist WTF therefore the ontological argument is crazyAnselm claims it only works for God because God is that which non greater can be imaginedArguments against the Ontological ArgumentRoweimpossible things thing that cannot existsquare circlecontingent things things that can exist but need not exist air we can imagine a world where it does not existnecessary things things that must existGod to Anselmpossible things either contingent or necessary thingsUWOthings that exist can exist in reality or in your understandingQuestion If x does not exist in my understanding can I deny that x exist in reality according to Anselm the answer is no because when the fool says God doesnt exist he is contradicting himself because he knows of God to say that he doesnt exist Therefore God existsThe Cosmological Arguments Thomas Aqunias Five Wayscosmologicalhaving to do with the study of the world or universe1 The First Way argument from changewhatever is moved is moved by anotherthis cannot go to infinity therefore there is a first moverProblemwhy not an infinite chainthe world is not infinitely oldthe universe is like a cycle2 The Second Way argument for causationthings have efficient causesnothing can be the cause of itselfthe chain of causes cannot go back to infinitytherefore there is a first causeProblemtake away the first cause and you take away the effectbecause a finite stretch of a causal chain has a first cause it follows that he whose causal chain must have a first cause3 The Third Way argument from contingencyexistenceif everything that exist exists contingently there will have been a time at which nothing existedif that were so nothing could have come to exist and nothing would exist nowbut things do exist nowtherefore somethings must exist not contingently but necessarilyProblemif there is nothing there you cant move forwardif there is an infinite past nothing should existfirst premise presupposes an infinite past for the universe which contradicts himselfsecond premise supposes that it is not possible for something to come from nothinghaving proved that there must be some necessary being Aquinas goes on to argue that there must be a causethe principle of plenitudegiven infinite time anything that is possible is at someway or another4 The Forth Way argument from degrees of excellence gradationmore of less requires a most and leastwe acknowledge more and less good more and less perfecttherefore there is a best a most truly being and a most perfect thingProblemseems falsesuperlative thing may be merely imaginary not actually existing5 The Fifth Way Argument from harmonynatural bodies act for an end including natural bodies which lack knowledge or intelligencenonintelligent natural bodies which act for an end must have their action directed by a being endowed with knowledge and intelligencetherefore an intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end
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