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Physics Notes Exam.docx

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Western University
Physics 3151A/B
Doug Hazlewood

th Physics Notes Exam: May 6 2013 Mechanics Kinematics  Displacement = distance travelled in specific direction, ‘net’ distance travelled from certain position (p). Measured in m. Vector Quantity, (s)  Velocity = change in displacement per change in time (delta s / delta t). Measured in ms. Vector Quantity: o V = final velocity o U= intial velocity  Acceleration = change in velocity per change in time (delta v/delta t). Measured in -2 ms . Vector Quantity (a)  SUVAT equations ( ) o ( ) o o o o Free Fall Motion  Acceleration is constant in free fall with an accelerating force of: 9.81ms  Air resistance is also a factor, as you accelerate downwards, obviously your velocity will increase. As your velocity increases, so will the resistance of the air until a point where the resistance is so high, that you will cease to accelerate and maintain a uniform velocity. This is known as terminal velocity. Graphical Representation of motion  Gradient of displacement line = velocity  Tangent to a point on S-graph = Instantaneous velocity  Gradient of Velocity line=acceleration  Area under velocity graph = displacement  Area under acceleration graph = velocity Forces and Dynamics  Forces o Tension o Normal Force o Upthrust (buoyancy) o Air Resistance o Gravitational Force (W=mg) o Friction  Free Body Diagrams o Diagrams showing forces acting on a body. o Adding forces = adding x components, adding y components o Balanced forces = no force = inertia = constant velocity = x components are equal and opposite, same with y components. Newton’s Laws of Motion  Newton’s First Law – Inertia o All forces are balanced. o Things that are in motion stay in motion, things that are in rest stay in rest. By motion, I mean constant velocity. They stay like this until acted upon by an external force. o Translational Equilibrium = when all forces are balanced. -  Momentum (p), N s, kg m s o P=mv o Rate of change in momentum (delta p / t) proportional to F o Vector Quantity, therefore, momentum going one way doesn’t equal momentum going the other way. o Law of Conservation of Momentum  Momentum is always conserved, therefore, a bomb intact has the same momentum as the sum of its particles when it explodes. Because momentum is a vector quantity, the ‘net’ momentum equals zero. o Impulse  Change in momentum  (p2-p1)  Newton’s Second Law – F = ma ( ) o = Force o ma = force o Force is equal to mass x acceleration.  Newton’s Third Law o Action vs. Reaction o If a body A exerts a force on another body, B, body A will experience an force equal and opposite from body B o Just because the forces are equal and opposite, doesn’t mean each body will be in balance as far as the forces go, because the forces are acting on different objects.  Collisions o Conservation of momentum helps in determining the new velocities of bodies after they collide. o Momentum before must equal momentum after o Different scenarios:  Bodies stick together - mu = (m + M)v  Colliders hit each other but separate
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