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Physiology 1021

Nova Scientia Psychology 1000 Practice Exam Version 2 1. In your research on memory, you intensively study your roommate because she has an unusually good memory; she can memorize material perfectly after reading it only once. The research method you are using is a/an A) Case study B) Naturalistic observation C) Survey D) Correlational study 2. The question of generalization of findings is particularly problematic with research based on A) Case study B) Naturalistic observation C) Survey D) Correlational study 3. The characteristics favoured by natural selection are A) Always positive ones B) Always lead to larger animals C) Ones that reduce survival D) Can be either positive or negative 4. Modern evolutionary psychology argues that A) Physical changes in our brains caused the development of mental capacities. B) Change in the brain came first, followed by physical changes such as changes in our hands. C) Evolutionary pressures stimulated the development of thinking and reasoning. D) Behaviours that were adaptive became incorporated into out genetic make-up 5. A modern evolutionary psychologist would argue that we developed the ability to think, reason and use language because A) they are by-products of changes that really have nothing to do with mental abilities. B) these abilities helped us survive. C) these abilities appeared first and by chance and then became encoded in our genes. D) Nothing. Evolutionary theory does not consider mental or behavioural capabilities, only physical form. 6. A new drug has been approved for treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. This drug improves memory, learning and other aspects of intellectual function among people with mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's Disease. Which neurotransmitter does this drug most likely act on? A) Serotonin B) Dopamine C) Acetylcholine D) GABA 7. Daly and Wilson, Canadian evolutionary psychologists, have found that most murders are committed by ____________. A) young males against young females. B) young males against older females. C) young males against competing young males. D) young males against competing older males. 8. The dominance hierarchy among social animals serves to A) decrease the amount of aggression within the group B) provide a context for aggression to occur C) settle the order of access to resources D) All of these are correct. 9. A sudden reversal in the axon membrane's voltage, during which the membrane potential moves from -70mv to +40mv is called ____. A) the action potential threshold B) the all-or-none law C) a graded potential D) an action potential 10. A tiny gap between the axon terminal and the next neuron into which neurotransmitters are released is called the ____. A) Synaptic cleft B) synaptic vesicle C) myelin sheath D) ion channel 11. According to functionalism, which of the following should be the type of question asked by psychologists? A) Why are we conscious? B) What are the components of our mind? C) How does experience lead to lasting behaviour change? D) What is the relationship between brain and mind? 12. The _____ argued that psychology should study why behaviour is performed, not the structure of consciousness. A) Structuralists B) Functionalists C) Gestalt psychologists D) Behaviourists 13. The text argues that to use “nature” as a standard of what is ethically or morally correct is illogical because A) nature is a concept not a power. B) the status quo reflects what nature has “preferred”. C) enough research has not yet been done to determine what is truly natural and what is cultural. D) nature is not moral, nor just, nor ethical; those standards come from humans applying cultural standards. 14. The erroneous idea that those on the top rungs of society must be the most evolutionarily “fit” is called A) survival of the fittest B) social Darwinism C) evolutionary culture D) Lamarckian evolution 15. “Genetic determinism” refers to the idea that A) genes cannot be changed in structure once the individual is conceived. B) genes for all humans are about 95% similar. C) genes have unavoidable and invariant effects. D) the final form of your genes is determined by environmental influences during fetal development. 16. After surgery to remove part of his brain that caused epileptic seizures, the patient H.M. showed severe amnesia. H.M. was then studied for many years and the information learned from this research has contributed a great deal to our understanding of human memory. H.M. is a famous example of a A) Case study B) Naturalistic observation C) Survey D) Correlational study 17. You are interested in the development of social behaviour, and so you go to a park and observe children playing together. By doing this you are using the research method of A) Case study B) Naturalistic observation C) Survey D) Correlational study 18. An important advantages of random sampling is that A) It is less work than other sampling methods B) One can more easily tailor the sample to the desired one C) It should yield a representative sample D) It generates the appropriate population 19. According to _____, our perceptions are organized and processed in such a way that they are greater than and different from the simple incoming sensory information. A) Biological psychologists B) Structuralism C) Functionalism D) Gestalt psychology 20. Although a biologist and zoologist by training, _____ helped found the cognitive perspective with his theory of cognitive development in children. A) William James B) Wolfgang Kohler C) Jean Piaget D) Peter Milner 21. Within scientific inquiry, a hypothesis refers to A) A tentative explanation B) A theory C) The set of observations D) The subjects who are tested 22. One difference between psychology and other disciplines, such as philosophy, that consider human behaviour is that: A) Psychology only considers conscious and voluntary behaviour B) Psychology includes discussion of mind C) Psychology relies on the scientific method and hypothesis testing through experimentation D) There really is no difference 23. The so-called law of parsimony refers to A) The simpler of two acceptable theories is better B) Theories must be supported by objectively obtained observations C) Science progresses by testing and modifying theories D) A theory must be testable to be considered a scientific theory 24. Field sobriety tests work because this brain area is especially sensitive to the effects of alcohol. A) Pons B) Medulla C) Cerebellum D) Hypothalamus 25. A skilled musician can play an instrument faster than should be possible with voluntary muscle control. The reason a musician can accomplish this feat is that the timing and coordination of the movements are controlled by the _________ . A) Medulla B) Cerebellum C) Hypothalamus D) Nucleus accumbens 26. Parkinson's disease, characterized by muscle tremors and difficulty controlling voluntary movements, is due to deterioration of neurons that send axons to the _________. A) Basal ganglia B) Thalamus C) Occipital cortex D) Frontal cortex 27. In explaining schizophrenia, a psychologist concentrates on the disordered thoughts and speech that occur with schizophrenia, and attempts to find evidence of childhood traumas among schizophrenic patients. This psychologist is approaching schizophrenia from the ____ level of analysis. A) biological B) unconscious C) psychological D) environmental 28. A psychologist argues that we have to understand the cause or causes of anorexia nervosa before we can successfully treat it. That is, this psychologist is combining the goals of A) Understanding and control B) Description and prediction C) description and prediction D) Control and prediction 29. Research by James Olds and Peter Milner linked the activity in specific brain areas with A) Aggression B) Memory C) Pleasure` D) Pain 30. Twins that develop from a single fertilized egg are called __________. A) monozygotic B) dizygotic C) fraternal D) All of these are correct. 31. The correlation for identical twins raised apart is ____________ that for identical twins reared together. A) much lower than B) nearly as high as C) exactly the same as D) twice as large as 32. Someone is exhibiting disordered thought, hallucinations and delusions. You would suspect problems with their ________ . A) Serotonin B) Dopamine C) Acetylcholine D) GABA 33. You are canoeing peacefully along a river, relaxing and enjoying the quiet. As you round a bend in the river, you realize that you are about to enter a series of raging rapids. Your heart begins to race, your muscles tense and you start to breathe in deep, rapid breaths. The system that kicked your body into high gear so that you could (hopefully) survive the rapids is the ___________ . A) Somatic B) Sympathetic C) Parasympathetic D) Cerebellar 34. This brain area is critical for survival and almost any damage to it results in death. A) Hypothalamus B) Medulla C) Thalamus D) Basal ganglia 35. Freud argued that we learn to be anxious of sexual desires and needs because early in our life such desires A) Are punished B) Go unfulfilled C) Are secretly rewarded D) Have no impact 36. We use _____ to keep anxiety-arousing desires and wishes out of conscious awareness A) Hysteria B) Self-actualization C) Repression D) Sublimation 37. The rules that specify acceptable and unacceptable behaviour within a group are called A) Roles B) Norms C) Laws D) Electives 38. In your experiment on caffeine effects, you give one group of subjects regular coffee to drink and a second group of subjects decaffeinated coffee. The group that received the decaf would be the A) Experimental group B) Control group C) Double-blind group D) Bias group 39. What is the purpose of using a placebo in an experiment on drug effects? A) to guard against possibly dangerous effects of the drug being tested B) to avoid giving the drug to someone who doesn't need it C) to determine if the drug has any effect beyond that produced by the subjects' expectations D) to reduce the random variability that naturally occurs in any behavioural test 40. Bored with life on Gilligan's island, the Professor decides to study the effects of banging coconuts on people's skulls. He randomly assigns three castaways to his experimental group and the other three to his control group and measures the mean intelligence level of both groups. The banging of coconuts on people's skulls is the ____ variable. A) dependent B) confounding C) independent D) correlational 41. Bored with just encouraging Americans to have more and better sex, Dr. Ruth decides to study why so many more men than women have extramarital affairs. To study this question, she recruits Ted Kennedy, Frank Gifford, Marv Albert, and Bill Clinton for her study. However, her granting agency, worried that it is throwing its money down the proverbial rat hole, wonders why she has recruited such an unrepresentative sample of celebrities for her study. The agency is evidently worried about the _____ of Dr. Ruth's work. A) internal validity B) random assignment C) experi
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