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Phys Renal & Resp Exam.pdf

6 Pages

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Physiology 1021
Anita Woods

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Practice Physiology Exam – Feb. 2011 Respiratory System and Renal Physiology 1. In the ascending limb of Henle’s loop, the interstitial fluid osmolality in a given region of the medulla is 900 milliosmoles. Given this information, what would be the osmolality of the luminal (tubular) filtrate within the nephron in that same region? A. 900 milliosmoles B. greater than 900 milliosmoles C. less than 900 milliosmoles D. the same osmolality as found in the luminal filtrate in that same region E. none of the above 2. The inspiratory area of the respiratory centre is located in A. The cerebral cortex B. The medulla C. The pons D. The cerebellum E. The midbrain 3. Immediately before entering the respiratory zone, air passes through which of the following structures? A. Alveoli B. Trachea C. Primary Bronchi D. Terminal bronchiole E. Respiratory bronchiole 4. According to Boyle’s Law: A. Pressure is directly related to volume B. If the volume increases, pressure increases C. If the volume increases, the pressure does not change D. If the volume increases, the pressure decreases E. Both A and B are correct 5. Which of the following pressures in and around a healthy set of lungs is correct? A. Alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure B. Atmospheric pressure is equal to the transpulmonary pressure C. Transpulmonary pressure is greater than the intrapleural pressure D. Atmospheric pressure is the same and the intrapleural pressure E. Intrapleural pressure is lower than the alveolar pressure 6. Premature babies are often born without sufficient pulmonary surfactant. Which of the following will be seen in such a premature baby? (A) They have lungs that are easy to inflate but difficult to deflate (B) They will have abnormally high surface tension in the lungs compared to normal (C) There will be an increase in lung compliance compared to normal (D) They have large amounts of elastin in the lungs compared to normal (E) Both A and B are correct 7. The inspiratory area of the respiratory centre is located in (A) the cerebral cortex (B) the medulla (C) the pons (D) the cerebellum (E) the midbrain See diagram 1 of Spirometer: 8. Which letter represents vital capacity? 9. Which letter represents in inspiratory reserve volume? 1. A patient suffering from respiratory problems was given a forced vital capacity test. It was found that the patient a vital capacity of 3.5 litres and a forced expiratory volume (FEV-1) of 3.1 Litres. What can you conclude from this subject? A. this subject is suffering from asthma B. this subject was a long time smoker C. this subject has pulmonary fibrosis D. the lungs of this subject were more compliant than normal E. both C and D are correct 2. If the atmospheric pressure at the top of Mount Everest is 250 mmHg, what is the approximate partial pressure of oxygen? (assume the air has the same percentage of oxygen than it does at sea level). A. 26 mmHg B. 52 mmHg C. 125 mmHg D. 159 mmHg E. 250 mmHg 3. A right-shift in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve… A. can be caused by a decrease in PCO2 B. can be caused by decrease in temperature C. causes more oxygen unloading from hemoglobin at a given PO2 D. will occur if someone inhales 100% oxygen E. is an indication of lung dysfunction Your urine collected over 24 hours had a volume of 1.5 litres. Your plasma sodium level was 0.9 g/litre. Your GFR was 160 litres per day. Your urine contained 0.8 g of sodium per litre. Using this information answer the next 3 questions: 4. What was your 24 hour filtered load for sodium? A. 115.2 g/day B. 144 g/litre C. 144 g/day D. 128 g/litre E. 128 g/day 5. What percentage of the sodium filtered load did your kidneys reabsorb over 24 hours? A. 99.2 B. 0.8 C. 1.35 D. 1.6 E. 98.0 6. What was your 24 hour rate of sodium excretion? A. 1.5 litres/day B. 1.16%/day C. 1.5 g/day D. 1.2 Litres/day E. 1.2 g/day 7. Which of the following substan
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