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Module 13: The Endocrine System Great diagrams, no extra info, everything you need to know for module 13

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Western University
Physiology 1021
Tom Stavraky

Physiology Notes Module 13 March2011 The Endocrine System Slower actions more widespread thoughout the body The functions of the endocrine system1 Maintenance of the internal environment body temperature body fluid volume osmolality 2 Adaptation to stress Endocrine gland a group of 3 Control of growth and metabolism specialized cells that synthesize 4 Control of reproduction store and release a very specialchemical into blood hormoneThe hormone is released into the bloodstream and circulates throughout the body to specific target cells that have receptors for the hormone The hormone will then have its effect on the target cell and can either stimulate or inhibit the activity of the cellPhysiology Notes Module 13 March2011 Hormones1 Hormones derived from the amino acidTyrosine thyroxine triiodothyronine secreted from the thyroid gland2 Hormones derived from proteinscalcitonin parathyroid hormone thepituitary and pancreatic hormones andmost of the releasing and inhibitinghormones from the hypothalamus3 Steroid hormones cortisol aldosteroneestrogen progesterone and testosteroneall derived from cholesterol Hormones are secreted into the blood in pulses by a very specific stimulus neural or bloodborne amounts that vary with the strength of the stimulus they exert their specific effects by binding to receptors on or in the target cells and generally act by regulating preexisting reactions Receptors a unique structure in or on a cell that interacts with a chemical hormone in a particular way much like a specific key will open a specific lock a specific hormone will bind to a specific receptor Hydrophilic protein hormonesunable to diffuse through themembrane alters the activity of the Hydrophobic lipid soluble hormones steroidcell from the outside receptor and thyroid hormones diffuse through the celllocated on the cell membrane membrane receptor located in cytoplasm or Steps of action nucleusSteps of action 1 Travel in blood freely1 Travel in blood attached to a carrier 2 Hormone binds to receptor onprotein the surface of target cells2 Carrier releases hormone 3 Causes changes inside the cell3 Hormone diffuses across membrane 4 Alter cellular activity 4 Bind specifically to receptorHormone attaches to the receptor a 5 Receptorhormone will bind DNA sequence of chemical reactions isinside nucleus initiated activity of the cell altered 6 Causes effect bound to DNA within the nucleus to altervarious activities of the cell Hormone must be released by its carrier proteinbefore it can enter the cell
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