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October Midterm Review: Modules 1-6.26 Decent notes, everything you need to know for the october midterm

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Western University
Physiology 1021
Tom Stavraky

Physiology: October Midterm Review October 2010 Module 1: Introduction to Physiology Contents Homeostasis: the maintenance of relatively constant Physiology is the biological study of conditions in the internal environment regardless of the function of living what is happening on the external environment organisms and their *requires energy underlying processes The Endocrine System (slow response) and the Nervous System (rapid response) are involved in maintaining homestasis. *things are internal until it has been absorbed or reabsorbed Internal Environment: everything inside the body (kidneys) External Environment: everything outside of the body *including the entire inside of your digestive system, your lungs & parts of your kidneys & Negative Feedback Control Systems: bladder Nervous System: brain, spinal cord, nerves *the controlled variable ends up shutting off the effector Positive Feedback Control Systems: *the controlled variable keeps the effector on The Bodys Structural Hierarchy Atoms (C, H, O) Molecules (O2, H2O) Macromolecule (nucleic acid,/DNA, protein, lipid) Organelles (Nucleus, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum) Cell (blood cell, neuron, skeletal muscle cell) Tissue (muscle tissue, nervous tissue, connective tissue) Organs (stomach, heart, brain) Organ System Organisms Module 2: Body Fluids Body Fluid Compartments TBW- 42 L Intracellular Fluid Compartment (ICF): everything inside the cells- 28 L (7.4 Gallons or 67% of TBW) Physiology: October Midterm Review October 2010 Extracellular Fluid Compartment (ECF): everything outside the cells 1. The Interstitial Compartment: everything outside the cells but not in the plasma- 11L (2.9 Gallons or 26% of TBW) 2. The Plasma: 3L (0.8 Gallons or 7% TBW) -pale yellow fluid , consists of about 92% water, consists of about 8% other substances ( proteins, ions, nutrients, gases, waste products), is a colloidal solution ( liquid containing suspended substances that do not settle out of solution, i.e. plasma proteins, which include albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen) Chemical Composition of the Body Fluids Na+, Ca++ & Cl- are found in high concentrations on the outside of the cell K+ is found in high concentrations on the inside of the cell Module 3: Human Cells The Cell Membrane - selectively permeable - controls what ions and molecules can pass through the membrane via channels, pores and special transport systems The phosphate heads face outwards towards the aqueous regions. Water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the hydrophobic fatty-acid region of the phospholipid bilayer Na+, K+, many ions,, water Must rely on protein channels/pores that are found within the membrane and span - the entire membrane (from the inside to the outside of the cell) Membrane Transport MechanismsPhysiology: October Midterm Review October 2010 MEMBRANE TRANSPORT CHART Properties Simple Diffusion Facilitated Active Transport Diffusion through Diffusion protein * carrier- channel mediated Molecule Type Hydrophobic Hydrophilic Hydrophilic Hydrophilic Membrane No Yes Yes Yes Protein Channel Change shape, Carrier opens or rotates Gated or No No Yes Yes Controlled Chemical No Yes/No? Yes Yes Specificity Saturatable No Yes/No? Yes Yes Lipid-soluble -ions (fat-soluble) -water molecules such -polar molecules as O2, CO2 and fatty acids pass uninhibited through the hydrophobic fatty-acid tails of the phospholipid
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