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December Exam Review Modules 6.26-end of Module 9; good diagrams, most of the material you need to know

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Physiology 1021
Tom Stavraky

Physiology: Midterm Review December 2010 Module 6: The Nervous System Thought to Action Structure and Organization of the motor system: 1. Prefrontal Cortex: Where the first thought originates (i.e. deciding to pick up a cup of coffee) 2. Premotor Cortex (located in the frontal lobe): Develops the appropriate strategy for the movements necessary and the appropriate sequence of muscle contractions (i.e. extending the arm to pick up the cup) 3. Supplementary Cortex (located in the frontal lobe): Programs the motor sequences necessary for the action The more complex or repetitious the movement, the more the supplementary cortex is needed 4. Primary Motor Cortex (located on the precentral gyrus in the frontal lobe): Actives the neurons that will eventually activate the appropriate muscles Physiology: Midterm Review December 2010 Corticospinal Tract The major motor pathway from the primary motor cortex to the motor neurons that innervate the muscle cells cortex Proprioception The muscles send sensory information back to the CNS informing the brain of the position of the limbs. Alpha-Gamma Coactivation Alpha motor neuron innervates extrafusal muscle fibres Gamma motor neurons innervates intrafusal muscle fibres Physiology: Midterm Review December 2010 When an Alpha motor neuron is activated to contract a whole muscle at the same time the Gamma motor neuron causes the contraction of the of intrafusal muscles at either end of the muscle spindle THEREFORE: stretch is maintained in the spindle THEREFORE: APs continue to brain THEREFORE: BRAIN ALWAYS KNOWS WHAT STATE THE MUSCLE IS IN.... WHAT POSITION... PROPIORECEPTION The Cerebellum (page 6.38): essential in making accurate and smoothly executed movements Precentral Gyrus Voluntary vs. Involuntary Movement Reflex Arch Physiology: Midterm Review December 2010 Limbic System Key function: to link the higher thought processes of the brain with the more primal emotional responses of fear, anger, pleasure & fight or flight. Limbic System consists of many deep structures within the brain including the hypothalamus, amygdale, hippocampus, congulate cortex and septum. Hypothalamus- a small region of the brain, located just above the pituitary gland (anterior to the midbrain and below the thalamus). It is involved with the maintenance of the internal environment because it carefully regulates body temperature, water levels, food intake, blood pressure, internal clock and the release of hormones from the pituitary. Pituitary Gland The Master Gland of the Body -a pee sized gland that releases hormones into the circulatory system Stretch reflex Things to know: *Muscles can only contract 1. Reflex dont need to go to brain to cause an affect 2. If unscheduled change in muscle super rapid response muscle stretched = muscle contraction 3. Muscle always in pairs flexors and extensors The sequence of events is as follows: 1. Tapping the tendon produces a very small stretch of the quadriceps muscle. 2. Stretching the muscle also stretches the muscle spindles. 3. Muscle spindles trigger action potentials in the afferent neuron that enters the spinal cord. 4. The motor nerve of the quadriceps is activated while the muscles of the hamstring are inhibited. 5. Quadriceps contract and the hamstring relaxes; lower leg kicks out. Autonomic Nervous System: operates without any conscious effort or input or effort Sympathetic Parasympathetic Activates Fight or Flight Storage and conservation of energy Rest and relax Send neuron to every organ Send neuron to every organ except adrenal glands Exit spinal cord at thoracic and Exit spinal cord at brain stem and lumbar lower sacral Region Synapse close to spine in ganglia with Synapse close to effector organ postganglionic neurons Preganglionic NT Ach Preganglionic NT Ach
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