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Movement and Motor Control.docx

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Western University
Physiology 2130

Movement and Motor Control The basic unit for motor movement is THE MOTOR UNIT: consists of the alpha-motor neuron and any muscle cell it comes into contact with. To preform a movement we need to know: - which muscle group to use - length of the muscles it will move - muscle spindles - tension in the muscle it will move- GTO  The brain knows which muscle to use to preform movement as we learned through experience as we develop The brain gains info about length and tension of a muscle through proprioceptors: Length - muscle spindle Tension - golgi tendon organ Alpha MN: innervate extrafusal muscle fibers, responsible for initiation contraction (skeletal muscle) Gamma MN: used to process muscle contraction (muscle spindle) Muscle Spindle: intrafusal, found within. Runs in parallel with extrafusal muscle fibres and contains info about length and change in length. Monosynaptic. Intrafusal muscle fiber: made of muscle spindle (stretch) Extrafusal Muscle fiber: made of muscle fiber (tension) 1a Affrent: monitors velocity of stretch 1b Affrent: GTO, detects tension A reflex is an involuntary response to a stimulus, which requires the integrity of the nervous system. End result may be contraction or secretion Reflex Arc: involves receptor, affront neuron, a synapse, a motor neuron, an effector Monosynaptic reflex: a single synapse between afferent and efferent neurons (muscle spindle) Polysynaptic reflex: has 2 or more synapses (GTO) Reciprocal inhibition: opposite muscle is made to relax (ie knee jerk reflex- stretch reflex and inhibition of the antagonistic muscle) Alpha-gamma Co-activation: simultaneous activation of skeletal muscle fiber (alpha MN) and muscle spindle (gamma MN) causing both to contract. - Increases sensitivity of muscle spindle and maintains afferent info to CNS about muscle length Muscle Spindle Reflex: the additional load stretches the muscle spindles, creating a reflex contraction. It helps compensate for add
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