[Physiology 1021] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (41 pages long)

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Physiology 1021
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Kinesiology Notes - midterm
Placebo
Plaeo I ill please i Latithe measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health not attributable
to treatment
Psychological theorybelief in the treatment or to a subjective feeling of improvement
o The itial fato is ou eliefs aout hat’s goig to happe to us
o E.g. Doctors in one study successfully eliminated warts by painting them with a brightly colored,
inert dye and promising patients the warts would be gone when the color wore off
o Even when patients are told a medication they are getting is a placebo, it still can ease symptoms
and pain. Prof. Kaptchuk says he found this to be true in a randomized controlled trial of 80
patients with irritable bowel syndrome published in the journal PLOS One in 2010, and in a
2014 study in Science Translational Medicine involving 66 migraine patients.
The process-of-treatment theory - placebos cause the brain to release endogenous opioids, or endorphins,
that reduce pain
o Showing attention, care, affection etc.., to the patient/subject triggers physical reactions in the
body which reduce stress and promote healing (better immune system response)
Mosle’s Kee suge s “ha suge
o Osteoarthritis (breakdown of cartilage in the joints) afflicts more than 20 million Americans -
Arthroscopic surgery-damaged cartilage is scraped (debridement) or flushed out (lavage) with
the aid of a viewing scope is a common option (surgery performed 200,000 times per year
o Findings - Patients feel less pain and can function better because of the placebo effect not the
surgery
o Implications: Ethical issues (deceit of sham surgery vs. false benefits of the actual surgery) and
Insurance (will health insurance providers continue to cover the surgery?)
Rehab Psychology
Big three: injury prediction, injury prevention, injury recovery
Can predicting injuries stop them from happening in future? What kind of psychology can enhance what
traditional treatment really offers by adding an emotional component. Is there psychological factors/profile
to see if people would be more likely to hurt themselves?
Possible factors:
o lack confidence, reckless, lack basic knowledge about preparation, how people recover after
activity, stubbornness, lack of focus, poor form, over training, all or nothing, pushing too hard,
lack of experience, fatigue, stress in your life, depression, nutrition/preparation, stuck mindset
(tunnel vision)
Physical factors are given more attention (weather, playing field etc.) because they are easy to measure while
psychological factors are acknowledged but hard to measure (rarely used)
Moderating factors odeatig aiale that ifluees hat’s goig o etee stess espose ad iju
o Personality
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2
Not knowing when to pull back (type A vs type B person) type B (would manage the
stress better and less rash)
o History of stressors
If you have had similar stress in the past you would be more likely to be more stressed
when it happens a second tie ko hat’s goig to happe/eoe/pai
o Coping resources
Do you have mentors/family support?
Everyone has their own preferable coping resources - some people can cope better than
others hae figued out as to ope that othes hae’t
Will help you deal/modulate the stress response
Stress response two kinds of responses can occur in people in any order - It’s likel a eipoal espose
that is happening between these two pathways they both influence each other (which is first depends on the
person)
o Cognitive appraisal
In order for stress to occur the demands of the situation must exceed ones resource
capabilities
If it happened that one didnt understand material/midterm one would feel distressed
o Physiological
Nerves cause us to tense up lowers efficiency
Stress hormones
Higher blood pressure
Everyone has their own physiological response to stress - Stress causes tunnel vision they narrow their vision
worried only about what they are currently sand not what is happening around them (i.e. football
watching the ball and then gets hit from the side)
Thee is othig oe patial tha good theo – 1939 Kurt Lewin - if you understand there is nothing
more to understand
Moderator variables - a quantitative variable that affects the nature, the direction or the strength of a relation
between an independent or predictor variable and a dependent variable
o The moderator is coping and social supp0rt
o Independent stress
o Dependent variable injury
o Looking at the relationship between the variables and what affect they have
In this case the injury hast happened yet, we are trying to come up with a surveillance system on which
students hurt themselves - Finding connections between something that may or may happen - Relating
personal stress to the possibility of future injury
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Document Summary

Pla(cid:272)e(cid:271)o (cid:894)(cid:862)i (cid:449)ill please(cid:863) i(cid:374) lati(cid:374)(cid:895) the measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health not attributable to treatment. Psychological theory belief in the treatment or to a subjective feeling of improvement. The (cid:272)(cid:396)iti(cid:272)al fa(cid:272)to(cid:396) (cid:862)is ou(cid:396) (cid:271)eliefs a(cid:271)out (cid:449)hat"s goi(cid:374)g to happe(cid:374) to us(cid:863) Doctors in one study successfully eliminated warts by painting them with a brightly colored, inert dye and promising patients the warts would be gone when the color wore off. Even when patients are told a medication they are getting is a placebo, it still can ease symptoms and pain. Prof. kaptchuk says he found this to be true in a randomized controlled trial of 80 patients with irritable bowel syndrome published in the journal plos one in 2010, and in a. 2014 study in science translational medicine involving 66 migraine patients. The process-of-treatment theory - placebos cause the brain to release endogenous opioids, or endorphins, that reduce pain.

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