[Physiology 3120] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (332 pages long!)

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Endocrine system: tissues and cells capable of secreting and responding to hormones, communication system, the two components communicate via chemical messengers called hormones. Endocrine: chemical mediators produced in one part of the body which act on a. Paracrine: chemical mediators produced in one cell that acts on a neighbouring cell (cid:523)(cid:498)neighbourhood watch(cid:499)) Autocrine: chemical mediator produced in one cell and acts on that same cell (cid:523)(cid:498)self control(cid:499)(cid:524) Physical form of information transfer: ap vs chemicals. Speed of information transfer: fractions of seconds vs minutes, hours, days. Mechanism of gradation: frequency vs amplitude modulation. Amplitude modulation: receptor can cause multiple effects in response to one hormone. Mechanism to achieve specificity: (cid:498)wiring(cid:499) vs receptors. Large multimeric proteins i. e. tsh, fsh, lh; 200+ a. a. Derived from cholesterol metabolism, 4 hydrocarbon rings with various side chains. Lipid soluble (requires binding protein in serum) i. e. testosterone, estrogen, vit d. Lipid soluble (due to large aromatic ring) i. e. epinephrine, thyroxine (t4)

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