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Physiology 3120 Study Guide - Spring 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Protein, Hormone, Skeletal Muscle


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHYSIO 3120
Professor
Tom Stavraky
Study Guide
Midterm

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Physiology 3120
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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Physiology 3120
Dr. Stavraky
Lecture 1
Lecture Outline
The cardiovascular System
- Function of the CV system
- Role as a transport system
- General organization
- Total blood volume and blood volume distribution
- Anatomy of the heart and valves
- Myocardial cells
- Origin of self-excitability
Functions of the CV System Role as a Transport System
- Homeostasis!! maintenance of the internal environment
1. Transports oxygen and nutrients to the tissues.
2. Transports carbon dioxide and waste products from the tissues to the external environment.
3. Regulates body temperature (by transporting excess heat out of the body or conserving heat).
4. Transports and distributes hormones and other substances within the body
- The components of the transport system include:
o A central pump - the heart
o A closed system of blood vessels
We have 2 circulatory systems in our body that is separated by the heart
o The fluid medium, 'blood’, through which various substances are transported
General Organization
- 2 circulatory systems:
1. pulmonary circulation- blood going to the lungs to pick up oxygen and release CO2
2. systemic circulation blood being sent to the rest of the body
- both atria contract at the same time
- Right Atrium Right ventricle Pulmonary artery Pulmonary Capillaries
o Picks up O2 as it passes through the lungs and drops off some CO2
o Note: veins carry blood back to the heart while arteries carry blood away from the heart
- Pulmonary Vein Left Atrium Left Ventricle Aorta (the aorta is the beginning of your
systemic circulation) Arteries Arterioles Capillaries.
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- The capillaries are exchange vessels where O2 and nutrients diffuse into the tissues and CO2 and
waste products are picked up
- Capillaries Venules Veins Right Atrium…
Series and Parallel Circuits
- Vascular (capillary) beds are arranged in parallel and/or in series
- Parallel means things that are arranged side by side
o Ex: capillary beds in the arms and head/brain
- Series is when they are right after one another
o Ex: GC and PTC
o Ex: capillary beds in the liver and the digestive tract
- GC Glomerular cap.
- PTC Peritubular cap.
- Most of the capillary beds are in parallel. Why?
- Advantages:
o The amount of blood flow to individual vascular beds can be controlled separately
o There is relatively low resistance to blood flow;
this lowers the pressure requirement for blood flow (you need a pressure
gradient for blood to flow)
decreases the work load on the heart
- imagine that we had this one long vessel instead of parallel circuits, this would be very
inefficient
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