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Midterm

Political Science 1020E Midterm: POLI SCI 1020- NOV TEST REVIEW


Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Charles Jones
Study Guide
Midterm

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POLI SCI 1020:
NOVEMBER EXAM REVIEW
POLITICS AND ITS COMPONENTS:
WHAT IS POLITICS:
- Law making and legislations within a state
- Includes election, protests, and policy decisions
- Formal government activity
- A social process in which binding decisions are enforced
- Usually has conflict or the potential for conflict
WHY DO POLIICS MATTER:
- Laws are created that effect fundamental rights and freedoms
- Politics are everywhere, including within families, the economy and the state
WHAT IS GOVERNMENT:
- The activity of ruling over a body of people
- An institution that is responsible for coordinating collective decisions
ARITSTOTLE’S KEY IDEAS:
ARISTOTLE’S TWO QUESTIONS:
- Who rules
- In who’s interests
ARISTOTLE ON THE STATE:
- A territorial community that includes a centralized a government and
authority
- Authority reserves the right of legitimate physical violence
ARISTOTLE ON POWER:
- The currency of power that includes the ability to influence others’ behavior
- Includes hard power and soft power
o Hard power includes force, violence and bribes
o Soft power includes attraction, agenda setting and forms of
propaganda
HOBBES’ KEY IDEAS:
HOBBES ON THE STATE:
- A society needs state protection in order to survive
- Powerful states are needed in order to avoid disastrous interpersonal
conflict inflicted by human nature
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HOBBES ON HUMAN NATURE:
- Humans are introspect therefore we are all the same
- Humans are materialistic
- Human beings seek happiness, and this stems from continual success
- Human beings desire power, because power insures continual success and
subsequently happiness
- Human beings are predominately self-regarding
- Human beings seek to enhance reputation and ultimately care about what
people think
- Human beings are averse to our own death; humans will do anything
possible to stay alive
- Human beings are built equally in that we are equally vulnerable
HOBBES ON THE ROAD TO WAR:
- Equality, scarcity, uncertainty, competition, lack of trust, glory
3 MAIN LAWS OF NATURE:
- Seek peace if you can get it
- Lay down your natural right, but only if others do I too
- Perform your covenant, stay true to your commitments
LOCKE’S KEY IDEAS:
LOCKE ON THE STATE OF NATURE:
- Without the state human would be in a state of peace and equality
o No person would be superior or inferior to other
LOCKE’S LAWS OF NATURE:
- Do not harm other people
- Preserve mankind
- We have he duty to help one other
- We are natural liberty, not license
- All people hold the executive power of law and nature and therefore we have
the responsibility to enforce the laws of nature
LOCKE ON THE NESCESSITY OF THE STATE:
- We need an enforcer to administrate justice
- Same lack power to enforce the law of nature therefore we need the state to
resolve the issue
ROUSSEAU’S KEY IDEAS:
ROUSSEAU ON HUMAN NATURE:
- Humans desire self preservation therefore we love and save ourselves first
- We pity the suffering of others, but we do not get involved in their issues
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ROUSSEAU ON THE STATE OF NATURE:
- Rousseau believes that society has corrupted man and turned humans into
natural savages
- Change happens through free will and the capacity for self improvement
- Scarcity has lead to innovation, as well as cooperation
ROUSSEAU ON SELF-RULE:
- Freedom is not the capacity to do hat we want, but rather freedom is the
obedience to laws that we give ourselves
- Rousseau believes that we can be coerced and free
o We are forced to comply with laws, but in a democracy laws are self
imposed
ANARCHISM’S KEY IDEAS:
ANARCHISM ON THE STATE:
- Humans would be better off without the government
- Cooperation is beneficial and it tends to evolve
- Hobbes’ states that not everyone is bad enough to overthrow the government
therefore there will always be a state
ANARCHIST’S ON HUMAN NATURE:
- Human beings are naturally good; it is society and government that have
ruined inherent goodness
- Social cooperation without coercion is possible, but the state coerces people
into not breaking the law
THE STATE AND POLITICAL OBLIGATION:
WHY POLITICAL AUTHORITY IS PROBLEMATIC:
- People are naturally free, equal and independent, therefore legitimate power
is created by us
o Authority requires our consent although we are often coerced by it
WHY WE NEED POLITICAL OBLIGATIONS:
- Associative duties: special requirements that are attached o the unchosen
role or status of a citizen
- Transactions: examples include receiving benefits from the stae or making a
promise to obey
- Natural duties: the general moral requirement to promote happiness or
justice
UTILITARIANISM’S KEY IDEAS:
THE 3 PARTS OF UILITARIANISM:
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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