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Midterm

Political Science 1020E Study Guide - Midterm Guide: On Liberty, Medical Model, Cosmopolitanism


Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Erin Hannah
Study Guide
Midterm

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What is Politics?
The Elements of Politics
- Social
- Process
- Conflict
- Binding Decisions
- Enforced
- it applies to everyone, not just humans either!
What is the State?
Territorial Community
Centralized governing authority
Sovereignty, including monopoly of legitimate violence
Aristotle Two Questions
1. Who rules?
One, Few, Many
2. In whose interests?
In the rulers interests or in the interest of the governed
What is Power?
The ability to produce results
Influencing others behaviour
Power can take several forms
What is Authority?
The right to command
The right to punish those who disobey
Is state authority justified?
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
The State of Nature
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Why do we need a state?
Thought experiment
What Hobbes Claims
Worst scenario: no state protection
Powerful state is needed to avoid disastrous interpersonal conflict
Main premisses: human nature
Three Reasons to Attack
Competition: gain
Lack of trust: safety
Glory: reputation
Laws of Nature - rule on how to stay alive
Fundamental law: seek peace, if you can get it
Second law: lay down natural right (freedom everyone has to preserve
themselves), if others do too
Third law: perform your covenants (agreement)
John Locke
Why We Need a State: Inconveniences
Problem: administration of justice
there is no guarantee that authority and justice will coincide
Conflict about the law of nature
Some people lack power to enforce law of nature
(remember how this is different than Hobbes)
Locke’s Sate of Nature
A state of peace
Equality - equal morally
Law of nature - moral law, god’s law: says that everyone should be preserved
Natural Liberty - you’re only free to do what you have the right to do
(moralized idea compared to Hobbes)
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Rousseau
Human Nature
Desire for self preservation
Pity or compassion for the suffering of others
How Change Happens in the State of Nature
Free will and the capacity for self improvement
- tool making
- cooperation
- leisure, luxury goods, corrupted needs
Anarchism
We would be better off without government
Cooperation is possible without coercion
Universal Political Obligations
Justifying the state = showing that there are universal political obligations
Should we obey the law because it’s the law?
“Universal” = “applies to everyone”
Types of argument: associative duties, transactions and natural duties
Voluntarism and the Social Contract
Voluntarism: the state’s political authority depends on my consent
Social Contract: political obligation based on contract or agreement
Does everyone agree to obey?
Consent
Express; actually saying you consent
Tacit; implicit
Hypothetical
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