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Political Science 1020E Study Guide - Final Guide: Nazi Party, Social Democratic Party Of Germany, One-Nation Conservatism

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones
Study Guide

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Liberalism 45 - 64
7:24 PM
-Liberales (Spanis faction)
-Whigs become Liberal Party in 1840.
-emphasis on individual liberty rests on the conception of human beings as fundamentally
-people can control and direct their desires
-self interest is a primary motive.
-human beings are: competitive, rational, self-interested
-belief that everyone should have an equal opportunity to succeed.
Historical Background
Medieval Period
-Religious Conformity
-liberals call for freedom of religion
-Ascribed Status.
-early liberals wanted achieved status.
-feudalism divides us into nobles and commoners
-Estates Generale - first convened in 1302.
-Bourgeoisie (bourgs, French towns)
-no representation for slaves
-black death opened new opportunities for lower ranked people to change their status
Protestant Reformation
-Luther and his 95 theses
-Church was corrupt, issue of indulgences
-John Calvin made Geneva a theocracy.
Liberalism and Revolution
-civil war during Charles I rule
-Puritans wanted to purify the Church of England
-Land owning aristocracy sides with the king, Middle class sides with parliament.

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-Hobbes' social contract.
-surrendering of rights except the right to defend oneself
-liberal in idea of all of us being equal, consenting to government
-Two Treatises of Government
Exclusion Crisis, King James II becomes king of 1685.
-Establishment of Bill of Rights by William of Orange
-Locke argued for toleration of diverse religions
-Can't trust Catholics cause of the pope.
-need govt to protect natural rights
-have a right to revolution
The American Revolution
-no taxation /w out representation
-Thomas Paine Common Sense pamphlet.
-govt is a necessary evil, when it becomes an intolerable evil it must go
Two important features of the Declaration:
"all men are created equal"
-problem of who "the people are"
-not women, for Locke
-defense of rights and liberties of individuals against govt.
-republicans concerned with corruption of people and govt. Liberals just care about govt.
The French Revolution
3 important features of the old regime;
Religious Conformity
-Catholic Church dominated France.
Aristocratic Privilege
-tax exempt
-ascribed status
Political Absolutism
-Third Estate gets double rep, declare itself the National Assembly, commences
a drafting of the constitution.
1. The end of all political associations is the preservation of the natural and
imprescriptible rights of man; and these rights are liberty, property,
security and resistance of oppression.
2. The nation is essentially the source of all sovereignty; nor can any
individual, nor any body of men, be entitled to any authority which is not
expressly derived from it.
Olympe De Gouges - no female rights in the Declaration

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-republicanism also played a role "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
-Church lands secularized and sold.
-1791 France becomes a constitutional monarchy
Liberalism and Capitalism
-central struggle of liberalism is the quest for economic liberty
-one country can only improve its economic strength at the cost of others.
3 tactics: have colonies only sell back to you
·Set high tariffs on imported goods
·Establishment of Monopolies
-Bernard Mandeville - Fable of the Bees.
-reform from their own selfishness
-people put out of work
-Physiocrats develop the idea of private interests into an economic theory.
Adam Smith
-recommends individuals compete freely in market place
-govt has 3 proper functions:
-defend against invasions
-promote justice
-provide public works.
Liberalism in the 19th Century
6:29 PM
-Jeremy Bentham
-society needs to be more rational
-seek utility
-govt could promote greatest happiness of greatest # by leaving people alone
-Govt is not likely to promote the greatest happiness of greatest # if controlled by small
segment of society.
John Stuart Mill
-supported women's rights
-concerned about the tyranny of the majority
-harm principle
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