Political Science 1020E- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 73 pages long!)

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Published on 29 Mar 2018
School
Western University
Department
Political Science
Course
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Western
Political Science 1020E
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Defining and Debating the State
The State
-states haven’t always existed (medieval europe: independent city states)
-rival forms: cities, traditional kingdoms, empires
-state model proved superior after 1500
-state model is now universal
Defining the State
-Hegelian Idealism: idealism approach, history is human consciousness/ideas
development: family “particular altruism”, very particular, tight interconnected, private,
particular relations with particular people, where history begins with altruism
civil society: “universal egoism”, left common sphere to joining a group with people of the
same interests, less focused on altruism, more focused on egoism (selfishness)
state: “universal altruism”, fulfillment of human development, universalism,
-end of history= full development of state (germany)
-many people think individual freedom as end of history
Functionalism: you get what you need
-state as provider of order and stability
-what threatens order? -> marxists: class conflict-state resolves it
-but state is whatever does this work
Organizational Approach:
1. State as specific set of institutions: bureaucracy, military, police, courts, etc
2. Why treat these collectively as “the state”?
3. After Hegel, political scientists rejected the concepts as abstract and unnecessary
Organizational Features:
1. Territory-demarcated area defensible borders
2. People-community defined by territorial boundaries
3. Sovereignty- final and absolute authority within territory
4. Public institutions and roles
5. Domination- Max Weber: monopoly of coercion within a given territory
6. Legitimacy- makes domination easier to swallow
International Approach Adds:
-effective governments
-relations (wars, challenges, interactions) with other states
-no difference between international and internal (domestic)
The Duality of the State
-protects its people from each other and also from external threats
-borders define what is internal and external in the first place
Emergence of the Dual State
-with the decline of:
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-> feudalism: war made the state, large number of unequal and mutual relationships
->universal church: protestant reformation, peace of westphalia, 1678: state controls religion
within territory
Dualism’s Distinctions
-state from internal society, for which it provides rules and order
-state from international sphere, in which it competes with other states, in the absence of order
Comparative Politics and International Relations
Comparative politics: states as units of analysis
->compares units
-> studies politics under state-provided order
International Relations: states within state system
->begins with concept of anarchy
->examines state interactions in absence of rules and enforcement
->has explored surprising sources of order
Triumph of State Model
Global Extension- it’s a world of states
-states are formally equal
-if highly unequal in capacity
Growing Responsibility in Modern Era
-managing complex economics
-controlling flows across borders
-defining and defending rights
-sustaining social welfare (everything will be more efficient if we protect people)
-role of state is still controversial
Pluralist State
-social power is widely and evenly dispersed
-elected government leads the way
-therefore, state is neutral
Capitalist State
-social power is unequal and concentrated
-economy generates hierarchy of classes
-therefore, state bias in favour of dominant class
-uses power to maintain system
-state in favour of dominant class
Patriarchal State
-social power is unequal and concentrated
-not class, gender
-therefore, state bias in favour of men
-some feminists are pluralists
Leviathan State
-states have interests of their own
-society demands expensive state programs
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Document Summary

P o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e 1 0 2 0 e. States haven"t always existed (medieval europe: independent city states) End of history= full development of state (germany) Many people think individual freedom as end of history. Organizational approach: state as specific set of institutions: bureaucracy, military, police, courts, etc, why treat these collectively as the state , after hegel, political scientists rejected the concepts as abstract and unnecessary. Organizational features: territory-demarcated area defensible borders, people-community defined by territorial boundaries, sovereignty- final and absolute authority within territory, public institutions and roles, domination- max weber: monopoly of coercion within a given territory, legitimacy- makes domination easier to swallow. Protects its people from each other and also from external threats. Borders define what is internal and external in the first place. > feudalism: war made the state, large number of unequal and mutual relationships.