What is malaria?
● Parasitic infection that is spread between people by mosquitoes and is arguably the
most important vector-transmitted disease in the world.
● The leading parasitic cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide
○ 0.25 mortality rate
■ prevalence is so high that even a low mortality rate results in large
number of deaths
○ 200 million clinical cases of malaria in 2013
○ 584,000 people dying from the mosquito-borne disease
○ 3/4 of deaths pregnant women or children under five.
○ 3.3 billion people at risk
○ 55,111,095 DALYs
○ “Malaria remains the biggest cause of death for children under five in Africa.”
○ Malaria begins as a flu-like illness 8 to 30 days after infection. Symptoms include
○ Typical cycles of fever, shaking chills, and drenching sweats may then
○ Death may be due to brain damage (cerebral malaria), or damage to vital
● Malaria is present in over 100 countries.
● In sub-Saharan Africa, where it is the single largest cause of death for children under
five, malaria kills nearly one child every minute – approximately 1,300 children every
● Four nobel prizes have been award for Malaria focussed research and it has been a
major focus of international health efforts
○ 48% decline in # of deaths since 2000
■ tremendous improvement but still harmful
■ still large number of deaths
● Malaria is preventable and curable.
● The G & T
○ Quinine powder from cinchona bark used by indigenous people to prevent and
○ By 1840s British in India were using 700 tons of bark each year for quinine
○ Quinine so bitter, mixed it with soda and water…..
○ 1870 “Schwepps Indian Quinine Tonic Water”
● The Panama Canal & the US CDC
○ 26,000 employees building the canal
○ 21,000 (86%) were hospitalized for malaria
○ many public health lessons were learned from here
○ Drained pools near houses and villages