Political Science 1020E Study Guide - Final Guide: Modus Tollens, Modus Ponens

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Short Arguments: Some General Rules
1. Identify premises and conclusion Be Explicit
2. Develop ideas in natural order Structure
3. Start from realizable premises
4. Be concrete and concise only elaborate when necessary
5. Build on substance, not overtone
6. Use consistent terms
Generalizations
7. Use more than one example
8. Use representative examples appeal to a bigger group
9. Background rates may be crucial use consistent examples rather than flukes
10.Statistics need a critical eye avoid hyperbole/extrapolationuse figures that are relevant
11. Consider counterexamples
Arguments by Analogies
12. Analogies require relevantly similar examples
Sources
13. Cite sources
14. Seek informed sources
15. Seek impartial sources
16. Cross-check sources
17. Use the web with care
Arguments about Causes
18. Casual arguments start with correlations
19.Correlations may have alternative explanations
20.Work toward the most likely explanation
21. Expect complexity
Deductive Arguments*
22. Modus Ponens
If p, then q p. therefore q.
If drivers on phones crash, then they shouldn’t use them drivers on phones do have
more accidents prohibit it.
23. Modus Tollens
If p, then q Not q. therefore not p
If the visitor was a stranger, then the dog would’ve barked it didn’t no stranger
24. Hypothetical Syllogism
If p then qif q then ttherefore, if p then t
If you study culture, you view new customsyou become more tolerantp then t
25. Disjunctive Syllogism
P or q not p therefore q
Progress by morals or intelligence not morals must be intelligence
26.Dilemma: p or q if p then r if q then s r or s
27.Reductio ad Abdurdum
To prove passume the opposite from that, assumption, conclude q show that q
is false conclude that p is true after all
28. Deductive Arguments in Several Steps
Extended Arguments
29. Explore the issue
30.Spell out basic ideas as arguments elaborate and extrapolate
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