1: develop ideas in natural order structure, start from realizable premises, be concrete and concise only elaborate when necessary, build on substance, not overtone, use consistent terms. Generalizations: use more than one example, use representative examples appeal to a bigger group, background rates may be crucial use consistent examples rather than flukes. 10. statistics need a critical eye avoid hyperbole/extrapolation use figures that are relevant: consider counterexamples. Arguments by analogies: analogies require relevantly similar examples. Sources: cite sources, seek informed sources, seek impartial sources, cross-check sources, use the web with care. Arguments about causes: casual arguments start with correlations. 20. work toward the most likely explanation: expect complexity. If p, then q p. therefore q. If drivers on phones crash, then they shouldn"t use them drivers on phones do have more accidents prohibit it: modus tollens, hypothetical syllogism, disjunctive syllogism. If the visitor was a stranger, then the dog would"ve barked it didn"t no stranger.