# Political Science 1020E Study Guide - Final Guide: Modus Tollens, Modus Ponens

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18 Nov 2011

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Short Arguments: Some General Rules

1. Identify premises and conclusion Be Explicit

2. Develop ideas in natural order Structure

3. Start from realizable premises

4. Be concrete and concise only elaborate when necessary

5. Build on substance, not overtone

6. Use consistent terms

Generalizations

7. Use more than one example

8. Use representative examples appeal to a bigger group

9. Background rates may be crucial use consistent examples rather than flukes

10.Statistics need a critical eye avoid hyperbole/extrapolationuse figures that are relevant

11. Consider counterexamples

Arguments by Analogies

12. Analogies require relevantly similar examples

Sources

13. Cite sources

14. Seek informed sources

15. Seek impartial sources

16. Cross-check sources

17. Use the web with care

Arguments about Causes

18. Casual arguments start with correlations

19.Correlations may have alternative explanations

20.Work toward the most likely explanation

21. Expect complexity

Deductive Arguments*

22. Modus Ponens

•If p, then q p. therefore q.

•If drivers on phones crash, then they shouldn’t use them drivers on phones do have

more accidents prohibit it.

23. Modus Tollens

•If p, then q Not q. therefore not p

•If the visitor was a stranger, then the dog would’ve barked it didn’t no stranger

24. Hypothetical Syllogism

•If p then qif q then ttherefore, if p then t

•If you study culture, you view new customsyou become more tolerantp then t

25. Disjunctive Syllogism

•P or q not p therefore q

•Progress by morals or intelligence not morals must be intelligence

26.Dilemma: p or q if p then r if q then s r or s

27.Reductio ad Abdurdum

•To prove passume the opposite from that, assumption, conclude q show that q

is false conclude that p is true after all

28. Deductive Arguments in Several Steps

Extended Arguments

29. Explore the issue

30.Spell out basic ideas as arguments elaborate and extrapolate