Political Science 2231E Study Guide - Final Guide: Nuremberg Trials, New International Economic Order, Economic Globalization
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Inequality and exclusion are endemic features of contemporary global politics. Three
factors in particular are crucial: (1) enormous inequalities of power between states; (2)
global governance is shaped by an unwritten constitution that tends to privilege the
interests and agenda of global capitalism; (3) from health to security, tends to exclude many
with a legitimate stake in the outcomes.
Biometrics (or biometric authentication) refers to the identification of humans by their
characteristics or traits (e.g. voice, DNA, handprint, or behaviour).
Used in border technology surveillance, including Avatar. However, the number of
biometrics it takes means that the system is not (yet) reliable alone – it could be great if
inventors are given increased investment (provides 10 out of the 20 tags required to clear a
person for crossing).
A concept that demonstrates how a border is not a line – not where things stop, but a
unique site of exchange.
Celebrates the intermingling of cultures and integration of diverse state practices.
System introduced at the end of WWII to bring stability to the parts of the world economy
under US influence. The objective was to provide room in policy making to allow domestic
economies to intervene in the interests of ensuring full employment.
A system of managed exchange rates and capital flows operated until its breakdown in
1971, when the US announced it will no longer convert the dollar to gold.
Collapsed due to 3 factors:
1. The Nixon Shock (1971)
Nixon abandoned the Dollar-Gold Convertibility Standard (fixed exchange
rate regime became a floating exchange rate regime). The US did not have as
much money on federal reserve as everyone thought.
Abandoning free trade, the US introduced a 10% surcharge on trades across
the border, making it more difficult for countries to export to the US;
2. 1973 Oil Crisis
Led to stagflation – economic stagnation and high inflation.
Creation of the IMF, the GATT, and World Bank.
Members of OAPEC (Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries)
proclaimed an oil embargo on the US, to punish the US for re-supplying the
Israel military with arms (after it was outnumbered by Egypt, Syria, and
other Arab nations). Lasted until March 1974.
At the time countries relied mainly on crude oil – which came from these
OPEC countries. The world financial system (which was already on the
breakdown from the Nixon Shock) was set on a path of recessions and high
inflation that persisted until the 80s.
3. Stock Market Crash
With this total reconstruction of the global economy, policy makers had to
re-construct macro-economic policies.
Conflict prominent in failed states, where a country’s government has lost control of
significant parts of the national territory and lacks the resources to re-imposed control.
We have to choose a society where everyone has access to the basic means of living (see Viel
of Ignorance). For communitarians (e.g. Rawls) this only takes place within the state.
National boundaries provide ethical constraints.
Humanity has members but no memory, so it has no history, culture, customary practices,
traditions, or shared understanding of social goods.
Globalization from within.
Focuses on identification with community, culture, or ideas that transcends borders
(freedom from national limitations).
E.g. Globalizing capitalism: Promoted a community and culture that was informed by
market economics, universal human rights, and liberal social culture.
Morality is universal (Kant’s Categorical Imperative and deontology; Bentham’s
Utilitarianism and Consequentialism).
Commitment to preventing unnecessary harms (e.g. Geneva conventions, ICC, Universal
Declaration of Human Rights).
Counter-proliferation refers to diplomatic, intelligence, and military efforts to combat the
proliferation of weapons, including both weapons of mass destruction (WMD), long-range
missiles, and certain conventional weapons. In contrast to non-proliferation, which focuses
on diplomatic, legal and administrative measures to dissuade and impede the acquisition of
such weapons, counter-proliferation focuses on intelligence, law enforcement, and
sometimes military action to prevent their acquisition.
Crimes Against Humanity
With the emergence of the New World Order (and globalization), the roles of the UN and
UNESCO changed significantly, and began to focus on the question of : “Should we
encourage more humanitarian intervention in sovereign states for crimes against -
humanity?” How effective are peacekeepers in keeping the peace?
Dealt with by the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Part either of a government policy or of a wide practice of atrocities tolerated or condoned
by a government or a de facto authority. Murder; extermination; torture; rape; political,
racial, or religious persecution and other inhumane acts reach the threshold of crimes
against humanity only if they are part of a widespread or systematic practice.
E.g. Nuremburg Trials, Tokyo Trials, Apartheid, and Rwanda.
(Sovereign) Debt Crisis *News Item*
The European sovereign debt crisis (often referred to as the Eurozone crisis) is an ongoing
financial crisis that has made it difficult or impossible for some countries in the euro area to
repay or re-finance their government debt without the assistance of third parties.
Contemporary ecological philosophy distinguished by its advocacy of the inherent worth of
living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs.
Argues that the natural world is a subtle balance of complex inter-relationships in which the
existence of organisms is dependent on the existence of others within ecosystems. Human
interference with or destruction of the natural world poses a threat therefore not only to
humans but to all organisms constituting the natural order.
The use of threats by one party to convince another to refrain from initiating some course of
action. It convinces its target not to carry out the intended action because of the costs and
losses that target would incur.
In international security, a policy of deterrence generally refers to threats of military
retaliation directed by the leaders of one state to the leaders of another in an attempt to
prevent the other state from resorting to the threat of use of military force in pursuit of its
foreign policy goals.
Deterrence theory holds that nuclear weapons are intended to deter other states from
attacking with their nuclear weapons, through the promise of retaliation and possibly
mutually assured destruction (MAD).
Criticism: Assumes the opponent to be rational.
New Global Identity (Guest Lecture 8: UNESCO) provides new opportunities for social,
political, and economic development.
Development of LDCs threatened by too much trade liberalization. Alternatives?
o Trade-Led Development Development-Led Trade (e.g. Capacity building, EIF and
Aid for Trade).
o Post-Liberal development strategies
Macroeconomic reforms and regional integration; supporting smallholder
o South-South Partnerships
Southern markets (particularly in Asia) have seen a huge take off. The partnerships
with other countries being advantageous for LDCs. It is pulling a country with regional
o Domestic economies must be strengthened through flexibility mechanisms (i.e.
Having preferential market access).
o Developed countries have transnational obligations to ensure trade policies are not
repressive. Policies need to be examined in terms of labour standards and
environment laws. There might even be a need for selective protection to protect food
For capitalism and the free-market system, economies take off and wealth trickles down to
the bottom. This is the Western belief that the process will benefit everyone. Domination,
exploitation of nature.
Inequality and exclusion are endemic features of contemporary global politics. Biometrics (or biometric authentication) refers to the identification of humans by their characteristics or traits (e. g. voice, dna, handprint, or behaviour). Used in border technology surveillance, including avatar. A concept that demonstrates how a border is not a line not where things stop, but a unique site of exchange. Celebrates the intermingling of cultures and integration of diverse state practices. System introduced at the end of wwii to bring stability to the parts of the world economy under us influence. The objective was to provide room in policy making to allow domestic economies to intervene in the interests of ensuring full employment. A system of managed exchange rates and capital flows operated until its breakdown in. 1971, when the us announced it will no longer convert the dollar to gold. Nixon abandoned the dollar-gold convertibility standard (fixed exchange rate regime became a floating exchange rate regime).