Lenses = (cid:0) anne runyan & spike peterson: lenses help us bring some things into focus and can blur others- even eliminate. Every theory has a specific formula to follow. In a lecture prof. stands at front and students sit at back. Democracies do not war with each other, that is not to say that democracies do not go to war period (cid:0) 3. Interparadigm- 1980"s (cid:0) debate between realism, liberalisms, marxisms. Incommensurability: in ir cannot agree on the ontology, epistemology and methodology. Following kuhn: in order for a discipline to be a discipline, you need a paradigm to be agreed upon or to dominate for science to move forward. Following lakatos: create a coherent research program 3 (cid:0) 4. Deductive, simplify reality to analyse it, predictions (cid:0) reflectivist: post-positivists, self critical, challenging assumptions, knowledge is not neutral. Foreign policy of states by authoritative decision makers needs to be examined o: what are the intra-state constraints.