Liberalism 45 - 64
-Liberales (Spanis faction)
-Whigs become Liberal Party in 1840.
-emphasis on individual liberty rests on the conception of human beings as fundamentally
-people can control and direct their desires
-self interest is a primary motive.
-human beings are: competitive, rational, self-interested
-belief that everyone should have an equal opportunity to succeed.
-liberals call for freedom of religion
-early liberals wanted achieved status.
-feudalism divides us into nobles and commoners
-Estates Generale - first convened in 1302.
-Bourgeoisie (bourgs, French towns)
-no representation for slaves
-black death opened new opportunities for lower ranked people to change their status
-Luther and his 95 theses
-Church was corrupt, issue of indulgences
-John Calvin made Geneva a theocracy.
Liberalism and Revolution
-civil war during Charles I rule
-Puritans wanted to purify the Church of England
-Land owning aristocracy sides with the king, Middle class sides with parliament. -Hobbes' social contract.
-surrendering of rights except the right to defend oneself
-liberal in idea of all of us being equal, consenting to government
-Two Treatises of Government
Exclusion Crisis, King James II becomes king of 1685.
-Establishment of Bill of Rights by William of Orange
-Locke argued for toleration of diverse religions
-Can't trust Catholics cause of the pope.
-need govt to protect natural rights
-have a right to revolution
The American Revolution
-no taxation /w out representation
-Thomas Paine Common Sense pamphlet.
-govt is a necessary evil, when it becomes an intolerable evil it must go
Two important features of the Declaration:
"all men are created equal"
-problem of who "the people are"
-not women, for Locke
-defense of rights and liberties of individuals against govt.
-republicans concerned with corruption of people and govt. Liberals just care about govt.
The French Revolution
3 important features of the old regime;
-Catholic Church dominated France.
-Third Estate gets double rep, declare itself the National Assembly, commences
a drafting of the constitution.
1. The end of all political associations is the preservation of the natural and
imprescriptible rights of man; and these rights are liberty, property,
security and resistance of oppression.
2. The nation is essentially the source of all sovereignty; nor can any
individual, nor any body of men, be entitled to any authority which is not
expressly derived from it.
Olympe De Gouges - no female rights in the Declaration -republicanism also played a role "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
-Church lands secularized and sold.
-1791 France becomes a constitutional monarchy
Liberalism and Capitalism
-central struggle of liberalism is the quest for economic liberty
-one country can only improve its economic strength at the cost of others.
3 tactics: have colonies only sell back to you
· Set high tariffs on imported goods
· Establishment of Monopolies
-Bernard Mandeville - Fable of the Bees.
-reform from their own selfishness
-people put out of work
-Physiocrats develop the idea of private interests into an economic theory.
-recommends individuals compete freely in market place
-govt has 3 proper functions:
-defend against invasions
-provide public works.
Liberalism in the 19th Century
-society needs to be more rational
-govt could promote greatest happiness of greatest # by leaving people alone
-Govt is not likely to promote the greatest happiness of greatest # if controlled by small
segment of society.
John Stuart Mill
-supported women's rights
-concerned about the tyranny of the majority
-harm principle -defended through an appeal to utility
-need free market place of ideas.
-recommends representative democracy as the best form of govt.
-stresses educative rather than protective value of democracy
-welfare liberalism vs neoclassical liberals.
-govt needs to be as small as person
-natural struggle within the human species
-helping the poor and weak impedes the strong
William Graham Sumner
-leading american advocate of Social Darwinism
-govt should see to it that everyone competes freely and fairly
-needed to overcome obstacles of poverty and illness with help of the state.
-distinction of neg and pos freedom.
-neg: absence of constraint
-pos: power and ability to do something
-everyone gains freedom when they serve the common good.
-realize our higher selves
The Welfare State
Welfare liberal: regulate economic competition to cure social ills.
Socialists: Competition is bad, state owned enterprises needed.
-Otto Von Bismarck used the welfare state.
Liberalism in the 20th century
John Maynerd Keynes
-govts need to finte tune the economy.
-FDR New Deal
-Massive infrastructure projects
-argued that liberals were in the interests of corporations
- Philosophical Considerations
Rawls and Justice
-talent doesn't matter
-difference principle etc
Nozick and the Minimal State
-state only needed to protect the people
-result of Libertarianism
-state is an unnecessary evil
-desirable + practical
-practical: anything govts do private enterprise can do better
The Libertarian Vision
-Deregulation and privatization
Liberalism Today: Divisions and Differences
-liberalism is no longer the revolutionary ideology it once was in the west
-liberals are divided among themselves
-how far should individuals be able to go in exercising their freedom?
-difficult to draw the boundary between public and private
Political liberalism (John Rawls) - be like a referee in issues
-problem of the liberal commitment to equal opportunity
-freedom vs redistribution
-challenge of individuality and neglecting of society by communitarians.
-public service (National Service Program by Clinton)
-conditions are good if the individual is free to do as he or she wishes without
harming or violating the rights of others.
-disagreement on equality of opportunity
Orientation -people are rational individuals
-people are fundamentally the same
-promote individual liberty et opportunity
Liberalism and the Democratic Ideal
-liberals are firmly committed to democracy
-classical liberals strive to free people from govt.
-basic quality of freedom/equality
-favour democracy because it allows citizens to hold the govt accountable
-Liberal Democracy emphasizes the importance of the individual and liberty.
-Limits of Liberal toleration
-distinction of belief and behaviour
-tolerate any belief, not behaviour.
-conservatives: it is what men think that determines how they act.
Coda 2: A New Deal
-2008 recession and bailouts, seem much like a New Deal.
-conservatives want to preserve the traditional or customary way of life of their societies.
-conservative applied to anyone who resists change.
-problem of the definition of conservative.
-classical conservatives tried to preserve an aristocratic society
-Individualist conservatives who emphasize laissez-faire.
The Politics of Imperfection
-conservatives maintain that human beings are deeply flawed (and always will be)
-humans are intellectually and morally imperfect
-belief that humans are marked by original sin
-it is vain and foolish to hope our imperfections can be removed.
-conservatism has been called an anti ideology.
The Conservatism of Edmund Burke -condemned the French Revolution
Human Nature and Society
-revolutionaries misunderstood human nature.
-atomistic conception of human society
--everyone is a self contained atom who is not connected to others.
Organic view - individuals are related to one another and to the society like an
-rejected social contract
-people are short sighted, self interested, need govt to constrain them.
-Freedom is not necessarily good.
-Freedom like fire.
-only worthwhile when it is properly ordered.
Revolution and Reform
-burke not opposed to all revolutions, looked favorably on the glorious revolution.
-did not like French revolution because it was not a return to the old order, but a
reformation of society.
-change is a necessary feature of human life and society
-needs to be brought on gradually.
-reform not innovation
-innovation is change for the sake of change.
-leaky house example; build a new house from scratch
-reform grew out of Prejudice, which is superior to abstract reason.
-prejudice being tradition
Burke on Govt
-no one best form of government.
-representative government, true natural aristocracy, prviate property, and the
distribution of power
-didn’t believe in democracy
-representation by a wise prudent and informed person
The Natural Aristocracy -the few that have the ability to govern wisely.
-people could not obtain position in the natural aristocracy without the
ability and necessary opportunity of governing wisely.
-destruction of aristocratic privilege is bad.
-stabilizing and conservative force in society.
The Little Platoons
-no concentration of power
-power spread through society
-little platoons keep orderly liberty.
-come to accept democracy
-prefer a representative govt
-concentration of power (defeat it)
Conservatism in the 19th Century
Conservatism and Reaction
-reactionaries want to turn back the clock.
-De Maistre was a prominent french reactionar.y
-french revolution was an assault on king and altar.
-constitution is dangerous because it exposes the weakness of government.
-De Maistre didn't like the Enlightenment. 18th century attitude must be defeated.
-Metternich and Congress of Vienna
-Catholic Church played a reactionary role.
-Syallbus of Errors by Pope Pius IX - attack on liberalism
-suspicion of commerce, hatred of materialism.
-Tories vs Whigs
-Tories opposed expansion of voting rights
-Whigs campaigned to win the vote for middle class males. -Disraeli helps the Tories out by forming an alliance with the aristocratic upper class
and the working class.
-set out to address the needs of workers while instilling in the workers a sense of
respect for the aristocracy.
-workers rights, trade unions.
-dominant form of conservatism till Thatcher.
-Bismarck used the welfare state.
-Tory democracy is distinctly British.
Conservatism in the U.S
-focused on promoting a liberal society and way of life.
-John Adams + Alexander Hamilton
-John Adams focused on the importance of men of property
-Hamilton supported constituional democracy.
-Didn’t display suspicion of commerce.
Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville displayed cultural conservatism.
-attacked dehuminizing consequences of capitalism.
-SHIFT TO LAISSEZ-faire capitalism took place in late 19th century.
-what was liberalism was now conservatism.
Two factors for ths:
-Businessmen and industrialists stress the importance of private property and
-Second factor was developemtn of welfare liberalism
-neoclassical liberals displayed conservative traits.
-Social darwinists became conservatives.
-tension between traditional conservatives and the laissez-faire conservatives.
-do agree on private property, and hatred for communism.
Conservatism in the Twentieth Century
-traditional conservatives maintain that the common people are too foolish to run govt
-the masses need to be taught self restraint
Levelling -conservatives are against making society more equal, all it does is result in social and
-healthy to have a diverse society.
Ill take my Stand - Southern Agrarians arguing for traditional agricultural roots in
Conservatives and Communism
-vehemently opposed because of conflicting views of nature
-conservatives see humans as imperfect and selfish
-communists are more optimistic, problems stem from social conditions.
Progress, Perfectibility and Planning.
-faith in progress is unwarranted
-perfectbility is a dangerous illusion
-central planning is bad, too much faith in human reason.
-this kind of planning requires a centralization of power, that is bad.
-anticommunsim became a central pillar of conservatism post WW2
-all conservatives hate communism, but communism is gone, so what now?
Conservatism Today: A House Divided
-conservatives still agree on private property, opposition to communism.
4 distinct strands: Traditional
-preserve the social fabric
-Michael Oakeshott - politics is attenting to the arrangements of one's society.
-keep a check on capitalism, but support private property.
-less spending, interference
-give the free market free reign. Neoconservatism
-"disenchanted welfare liberals"
-govt needs to do less for people so they are encouraged to do more (benign neglect)
-Irving Kristol - "capitalism deserves two cheers, but not three"
-regard capitalism with mixed feelings.
-capitalism is a contradiction
-encourages hard work and saving yet promotes spending at same time.
"buy now spend later" attitude spills into government (lower taxes, more public
-belief that military should operate in the nation's interests through forcing regime
-cultural war vs the adversary culture
-encourage the value of work, discipline and virtue.
-that which was once shocking has become acceptable.
-illegitimacy has lost its stigma.
-politics and culture are 2 sides of the same coin.
-we must stem the cultural tide, they say.
-jerry falwell, pat robertson.
-America must return to its "Christian Roots".
-Morality stems from the bible, which is to be taken literally (lol)
-want lots of govt involvement in life to help protect their Christian views.
-strong proponents of the war on terror.
They want a social and political restoration
-make the U.S officially a Christian Nation
-Believe that God is punishing America
-reagan and Bush kept the four types of conservatives together, but they now unravel.
-diff kinds of conservatism lie in an uneasy tension with one another.
-issue of gay marriage. Brooks; expect gays to make marital commitments. -conservatism is well alive (look at the quarreling).
Conservatism as an Ideology
--things are the way they are because of human imperfection
-appeal to social stability and peace.
-we are all part of a greater whole, we must act with the greater good of society in
-individualist conservatives differ on this point
-take things slowly, pursue things carefully.
Conservatism and Democracy
-conservatism will support a modest form of representative democracy.
-democracy is acceptable when the people have moderate power and moderate demands.
Socialism and Communism
-modern socialism like classical conservatism began as a critique of liberalism
-believe everyone is entitled to what's in society if they contributed to it.
-centralization vs decentralization
-united in opposition to unrestricted capitalism.
Human Nature and Freedom
-people are not competitive and self interested by nature
-human nature is a set of possibilities and potentialities waiting to be realized and perfected
under the right conditions.
-capitalism perverts our true human nature.
-Ayn Rand: Selfishness is a virtue.
-members of working class share several common goals, capitalism puts obstacles in their
-obstacles are material or mental. -all are free, or none.
-Plato early socialist
-More and his Utopia another work of socialism - calling for the abolishment of money.
-William Blake - dark satanic mills.
Two basic themes to the industrial revolution:
-appeal to science and history
-human history is divided into successive stages or periods.
-feudalism gave way to the Enlightenment
-made no sense to talk of individualism with the complexity of industrialism
-didn't like laissez-faire capitalism, believed in planning.
-Comte supported a technocracy.
12 passions - 13th one of harmony comes from balancing the 12 passions.
Phalanstery - community of 1600, ideal pop is 1610.
-socialist society will be productive, prosperous and free.
-evils were not the result of original sin but of deformed society.
-deformed character was the result of deformed education
-model textile factory in New Lanark.
-His career as a journalist brought two important changes to his outlook:
-came to appreciate the central social and political importance of economic
-Ceased to be a liberal, became a radical who believed that the political and
economic system of his day was so radical that it could not be reformed from
Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844, remained unpublished
during his lifetime. The Influence of Hegel
-history moves in a particular direction and according to a pattern.
-history is about the maturation of spirit.
-spirit develops through alienation (think of people growing up).
-stages which spirit passes through reveal the cunning of reason and the
operation of the dialectic
-master and slave have a showdown, realize that the master can't function
without the slave.
-master and slave are both equally free.
Marx's Theory of History
-Left Hegelian vs. Right Hegelian (Marx was left)
-class conflict is inevitable so long as societies are divided into different classes.
-materialist interpretation of history.
Material Production requires 2 things
-Material forces of production
-vary from one society to another
-raw materials, amchiner
-social relations of production
-human beings organize themselves in order to extract the raw
-classes arises out of these social relations of production
-to simplify, imagine 2 antagonistic classes which all societies have.
-Bourgeoisie vs Proletariat
-dominant if you own forces of labour, subservient if you have
to give your labour away.
-dominant class is always much smaller than the dominated class.
-dominant class makes up for this in 2 ways:
-control of the agents and agencies of coercion
-controls the thoughts of the working class.
-The material-economic base of every society is capped
by an Ideological superstructure
-set of ideas that justufy the arrangements and
institutions of society. -acceptable mainstream ideas tend to serve the middle
Religion is the opium of the people
Working class suffers from a false
Marx's Critique of Capitalism
-capitalism was at one time a progressive and radical force.
-capitalism performed 3 important and historically progressive functions:
-Merchant capitalists hastened the demise of fuedalism
-made human beings masters of nature.
-need for innovation and change
3 reasons capitalism has to go:
-outlived its usefulness.
-capitalism creates alienation
4 distinct ways of alienation:
-forced to sell their labour, alienated from their product of
-cannot find satisfaction in their labour, alienated from
the activity of production itself.
-Alienated from their distinctively uniquely human
potentials or powers.
-alienates workers from each other through competition.
-capitalists are slaves to the market
-Capitalism is self-subverting
-example of the kind factory worker who goes out of
-tendency to monopoly
-everything is inverted in capitalism, fair seems foul, foul
The Dialectic of Change
-worker is grateful for a job
-why can't I be rich? Realize that the capitalist propaganda of "work
harder to be rich" is flawed, most must be poor workers for capitalism to
-realize that capitalists need the workers.
-Proletariat has an interest in abolishing itself. -
The Revolutionary Sequence
-more crises occur as capitalist society matures
Immiseration of the Proletariat
-proletariat become miserable because they cannot find work,
lose their jobs
Revolutionary Class Consciousness
-proletariat realize the problem is in the system, beset by
-proposes to overthrow the bourgeoisie
Seizure of State Power
-nationwide general strike
-bloody civil war
-bourgeoisie overthrown by ballots, not by bullets.
Dictatorship of the Proletariat
-Revolutionary Dictatorship of the Proletariat
-workers rule in their own interest
-must prevent counter-revolution
Withering away the State
-old ways of thinking will not disappear immediately.
-continued use of wage incentives
-eventuall, working class will end exploitation and alienation
-dictatorship of proletariat eventually withers away,
communism achieves its full form
-open and democratic
-economic production is planned and orderly
-"from each according to his ability, to each according to his
Socialism and Communism AFTER MARX
Engel's Marxism -Engel's was a capitalist.
-Engels and Marx teamed up; Marx provided the intellect while Engels was better at
-After Marx died, Engels claimed to speak for him on a # of subjects
-German Social Democratic Party (SPD)
-made up of the United German Labor Party led by Ferdinand Lassalle, and the
SDWP established by August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht.
-proponent of nationalism
-state should not wither away.
2 important moves:
-marx is open to criticism
-believed "laws" could be changed, made invalid by societal
-engels said that the science of dialectics is an unchallengable
account of how thi