Political Science 1020E Key Terms.docx

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

Political Science 1020E Key Terms (Semester 1) Chapter 1 Politics-Activity related to influencing, marking or implementing collective decisions for a political community. Power-The ability to achieve an objective by influencing the behavior of others, particularly to get them to do what they would not have otherwise done. Political Agenda-The issues that are considered important and given priority in political deliberations. Free Rider Problem-A problem with voluntary collective action that results because an individual can enjoy the benefits of group action without contributing. Authority-the right to exercise power that is accepted by those being governed as legitimate. Legitimacy-Acceptance by the members of a political community that those in positions of authority have the right to govern. Charismatic Authority-Authority based on the perception that a leader had extraordinary or supernatural qualities. Traditional Authority-Authority based on customs that establish the right to certain persons to rule. Legal-Rational authority: The right to rule based on legal rules and procedures rather than on the personal qualities or characteristics of the rulers. Common Good-What is good for the entire political community. Individualist Perspective-A perspective that views human beings as acting primarily in accordance with their own interests. Pluralist System-A political system in which a large number of groups representing a wide variety of interests are able to influence that decisions of government. Government tries to satisfy as many groups as possible and no group has a dominant influence on government. Political Science-the systematic study of politics. Empirical Analysis-analysis that involves explaining various aspects of politics, particularly by using careful observation and comparison to develop generalizations and testable theories. Normative analysis-Analysis that includes examining ideas about how the community should be governed and what values should be pursued through politics. Policy Analysis-Analysis that involves evaluating existing policies and assessing possible alternatives to deal with particular problems. Chapter 2 State-An independent, self governing political community whose governing institutions have the capability to make rules that are binding on the population residing within a particular territory. Government-the set of institutions that makes decisions and oversees their implementation on behalf of the state for a particular period of time. Sovereignty-the principle that states are the highest authority for their population and territory and are not subject to any external authority. Failed State-A state that is unable to enforce laws, maintain order, protect the lives of citizens, or provide basic services. Nation State-A sovereign state based on people living in a country who share a sense of being a member of a particular nation. Nation-A group of people who have a sense of common identity and who typically believe they should be self governing within their home-land. Binational and Multinational Studies-States whose populations are composed of two or more nations. Multiculturalism-the idea that different cultures within a country should be recognized and respected and provided with encouragement and support to help them retain their cultures and traditions. National Self-Determination: The idea that nations should have the right to determine their political status, including choosing to have their own sovereign state. Nationalism-The idea that the nation state is the best form of political community and that a nation should have its own self-governing state. Ethic Nationalism-Nationalism based on common ancestry along with the cultural traditions and language associated with a particular ethnic group. Civic Nationalism-Nationalism based on the shared political values and political history of those who are citizens of a country. Citizenship-The idea that a country’s permanent residents are full members of the political community within certain duties and rights. Globalization-The processes that are increasing the interconnectedness of the world. Chapter 3 Utilitarianism-the view that humans seek to maximize pleasure and minimize pain and that government should act to achieve the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Negative Freedom-The absence of physical and legal restraints on the actions of individuals. Positive Freedom-The capacity to do something worth doing or enjoying. Equal Rights-the same legal and political rights for all persons. Equality of opportunity-The equal chance for all persons to get ahead in life, regardless of their backgrounds or characteristics. Equality of Outcome-an equal distribution of wealth, income, power, and other goods. Affirmative Action/Employment Equity-Policies designated to increase the proportion of persons from disadvantaged or under represented groups in various positions. Democracy-Rule by the people Direct Democracy-A system in which citizens themselves make the governing decisions. Liberal Representative Democracy-A political system that combines a high level of individual freedom and the election of representatives to a legislative body, Plebiscitary Democracy-A form of democracy in which citizens have greater control through the use of such devices as referendums, initiatives, and recall elections. Referendum-A vote by citizens on a particular issue or a proposed law. Initiative- A procedure that gives citizens the right by obtaining a sizeable number of signatures on a petition, to have a proposition that they have drafted put to a vote by the electorate for approval. Recall-A procedure that allowed citizens to remove representatives from office. By gaining a sufficient number of signatures on a petition, citizens can require that their representative seek re-election before the term of office is over. Deliberate Democracy-A political system in which decisions are made based on discussion by free and equal citizens rather than by elected representatives alone. Chapter 4 Political Ideology-a package of interrelated ideas and beliefs about government, society, the economy and human nature that inspire the affect of political action. Enlightenment-An intellectual movement that developed in the mid eighteenth century emphasizing the power of human resource to understand and improve the world. Left-The general ideological position associated with advocacy of greater social and economic equality, laws based on universal human rights rather than traditional morality, and opposition to state support for religious institutions. Right-The general ideological position associated with opposition to imposing greater social and economic equality and with maintaining traditional (usually religious based) moral values and institutions. Rule of Law-the idea that people should be subject to known, predictable and impartial rules of conduct rather than to the arbitrary orders of particular individuals. Liberalism-Emphasizes the desirability of a high level of individual freedom based on belief in inherent dignity and worth of each individual. Classical Liberalism-A form of liberalism that emphasizes the desirability of limited government and the free market place. Lassiez-Faire Economic System: A system in which privately owned businesses workers, and consumers freely interact in the marketplace without government interference. Reform Liberalism-A version of liberalism that combines support of individual freedom with a belief that government action may be needed to help remove obstacles to individual development. Neo-Liberalism: A perspective based on a strong belief in the free marketplace and opposition to government intervention in the economy. Conservatism-A perspective or ideology that emphasizes the values of order, stability, respect for authority and tradition, based on a view that humans are inherently imperfect, with a limited capacity to reason. Reactionary-A conservative who favors a return to the values and institutions of the past. Welfare State-A state in which government ensures that all people have a decent standard of living and are provided protection from hardships resulting from circumstances such as unemployment, sickness, disability and old age. New Right-A perspective that combines, in various ways, the promotion of free- market capitalism and limited government and traditional cultural and moral values. Socialism-An ideological perspective based on the view that human beings are basically social in nature and that the capitalist system undermines the co-operative and community-oriented nature of humanity. Socialism advocated the establishment of an egalitarian society. Historical Materialism-The view that historical development and the dynamics of society and politics can be understood in terms of the way society is organized to produce material goods. Communism-A system in which private property has been replaced by collective or communal ownership and everyone is free to take from society what they need. Leninism-The version of Marxism that includes the belief that the capitalist system can be overthrown only by force, by means of a tightly disciplined party controlled by revolutionary vanguard. Democratic Socialism-The perspective that socialism should be achieved by democratic rather than revolutionary means, and not that a socialist society should be democratic in nature with political rights and freedoms respected. Anarchism-An ideology that views the state as the key source of oppression and seeks to replace the state with a system based on voluntary co-operation. Fascism-An ideology that combines an aggressive form of nationalism with a strong belief in the naturalness of inequality and opposition to both liberal democracy and communism. Nazism-A version of fascism associated with Adolf Hitler, the Nazi leader of Germany, emphasizing racial conflict and the superiority of the “Aryan Race”. Holocaust-The systematic extermination of six million Jews by the Nazi’s during WWII. Social Darwinism-The use of Darwin’s theory of evolution to argue that competition and conflict allow humanity to evolve through the “survival of the fittest”. Corporate State-A system associated with fascist Italy in which business and labor work harmoniously to achieve goals established by the state to advance the good of the nation. Neo-Fascism: A revival of fascism in contemporary times. Chapter 5 Feminism-A perspective that views society as patriarchal and seeks to achieve full independence and equality for women. Patriarchy-A system which power is in the hands of men and many espects of women’s lives are controlled by men. Liberal Feminism-A version of feminism that advocated equal opportunities for women in such areas as education and employment as well as equal legal and political rights. Socialist Feminism-A version of feminism that views women as oppressed by both the male-dominated character of society and the capitalist system. The liberation of women is connected to the transformation of capitalism into a more co-operative and egalitarian socialist system. Radical Feminism-A version of feminism that views society as based fundamentally on the oppression of women and seeks to liberate women through the fundamental transformation of social institutions, values, and personal relationships. Liberation-Freeing the human potential that has been stifled by the organization and values of society. Environmentalism-A perspective based on the idea that humanity needs to change its relationship to natural environment and ensure that it can sustain all forms of life. Anthropocentrism-The focus on human well being that is the center of most political though. Ecocentrism-The view that nature has intrinsic value and should not be valued only in terms of its use for human beings. Sustainability-Maintaining the integrity of ecosystems by ensuring that renewable resources are not being used at a rate that exceeds the ability of ecosystems to regenerate them, developing renewable substitutes to replace the consumption of non-renewable resources, and ensuring that the emission of pollutants does not exceed the ability of the ecosystem to handle them without damage. Participatory Democracy-A democratic system in which all citizens are able to participate directly in the decision that affect their lives. Sustainable Development-Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs; it involves development to ensure that the needs of the poor are fulfilled and protecting the environment for the well-being of future generations. Reform Environmentalism-A perspective that views the solution to environmental problems primarily in terms of better science, technology, and environmental management. Free-market Environmentalism-The perspective that holds that holds the guarantees of the rights of private property and a fee market economy are crucial to environmental protection. Deep Ecology-An environmentalist perspective that views anthropocentrism as the fundamental cause of environmental degradation and advocated the cultivation of an environmental consciousness and a sense of oneness with the world that recognizes the unity of humans, plants, animals, and the Earth. Social Ecology-A perspective that views social, economic and political relationships of hierarchy and domination as the cause of both human and environmental problems. Ecofeminism-A combination of environmentalism and feminism that views male dominance as the basic cause of the degradation of the Earth. Chapter 11 Liberal Democracy-A political system based on the ideas that the power and scope of government should be limited that government should observe the rule of law, and that the rights of the people should be protected. Electoral Democracies-Countries in which representatives to the national legislature are chosen in competitive multiparty and multi candidate elections, all adult citizens have the right to vote in reasonably free and fair elections, and political parties are able to appeal through the media and election campaigns. Polyarchy-A political system in which there is open competition for power and government actions are freely contested. Vertical Accountability-The various ways in which citizens, civil society, and the media seek to ensure that government institutions and public officials work to seek the common good. Horizontal Accountability-Sometimes called the requirement of government agencies to report sideways. That is, it refers to how government institutions check the performance of other government institutions to ensure that they work in the public interest. Transparency-in government, t
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