41 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Nigmendra Narain

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Comparative Politics ExecutiveNigmendra NarainDefining FeaturesCore of governmentTop tier of government presidents and ministers prime minister and cabinetProvides leadershipSets prioritiesSolves crisesDirects national affairsImplements public policySupervises bureaucracyPolitical executive makes policy while bureaucracy puts policy into effectMembers of executive are often chosen by electionRequired for governingPresidential governmentDistinguish from a dictator or ceremonial head of stateExistence of a president is an insufficient sign of a presidential systemDirect election of presidentSteers government and appoints it members and acts as ceremonial head of stateFixed office term for executive and legislativeNeither executive or legislative can bring down the other Separation of powers from legislatureSeparation of personnel from legislatureLegislators only depend on support in home district while president depends on whole nationGoalsoExecutive negotiate with legislatureoDeliberation over dictatorshipProblemsoStalemateoFragmentationoInstabilityUSAoSought to limit executive exercise of poweroCongress expected to play the leading roleoDelegates were unsure how the president should be selectedoSeparate election of executive and legislatureoElectoral CollegeGoal represent states choicevote and limit impact of excitable massesBasically they did not want the whole public to be able to voteNow popular vote refracted through statesoCongress cannot remove the president and president cannot dissolve congress to call new electionsoSeparation of institutionsshare poweroExecutive Office of the President provides a great amount of supportoPresidential power is the power to persuade There are 2 strategies1Going WashingtonPresident wheels and deals with Congress assembling majorities for his legislative2Going publicPresident exploits his access to mass media to influence public opinion and persuade Washington indirectlyBraziloIssue decrees for 60 days no approval renewable onceoForce Congress to vote on bills declared urgentoInitiate bills in CongressoWeak party disciplinelack of party loyaltyappoint ministers to Cabinet to create loyaltyoMultiparty system compared to twoparty system of USAoMultiparty governing coalition as a technique for influencing legislatureAssessmentoFixed termscontinuity in the executiveoAvoid collapse of government coalitions which happens in parliamentary govtoBroad support needed to winoElected by country at largeoNational constituencyabove legislative or local partisanshipoSymbol of national unityoLimit government protect libertyoMore likely to disintegrateoRisksOnly one party wins everyone else loses may lead to instabilityFixed terms are too rigid specified and datedSome presidents go beyond their term limits bc they have too much powerAmbitious president has risk of turning into a dictatorParliamentary governmentParliamentary government is linked to the assemblyGovernment emerges from parliamentGovernment can be brought down by a vote of no confidenceExecutive can dissolve parliament and call fresh electionsExecutive selects cabinet members
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