Political Science December Exam Notes (With Tutorials)

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

Lecture 13 - Ideology and Ideologies October-24-13 11:54 AM Origins RevolutionCapitalism Thinking determinesaction • 9/11: Why? Part of the explanation is radicalIslam • Occupy Wall Street Protests:Why? Part of the explanation is a rejectionof corporate capitalism is its currentform Ideologies • Systems of ideas with histories • Aim to shapesocialchange: conservethings, prevent things, change things • Dynamic:Ideologies adapt to historicalcircumstances – explain power Ideology:Origin and Key Parts • Destutt de Tracy (1790s) ○ Scienceof Ideas • Now (2012) ○ SocialPoliticalWorldviews • Four Functions:Explanation, evaluation,orientation,prescription French Revolution 1789: Beginning of Age of Ideology Explanation • Why the social/political/economicalworld is the way it is ○ Ex. Why is Canada in the final stages of creating the trade agreement with Europe • War, poverty, ethnic tension, peace,prosperity- different ideologicalperspectiveswill give differentanswers to thesequestions • Making senseof the world events- ideologiesare about to be simplifiedversionsof explanationsof complexphenomenon’s • Seek a large audience,ideologies create simplifiedexplanationsof complexphenomenon's Evaluation • Why socialand politicalphenomenaare good or bad – key issuesthat come ○ Layoffs • Ideologiesprovide standards to decidethings (poverty level, feminism) • Widespreaddisagreementabout how to evaluate ○ Ideologiescan provide people with reason Orientation • How do you fit into the socialworld. – who am I ? • Provides you with an identity – you can identifyyourself as a liberal, a socialist,a feminist • Provides a politicalcompass Political program • Says what shouldbe done and how to do it • Explanation of a diagnosis:program is a prescriptionfor a sick patient • Conceptionof a good societyas goal What are not ideologies • It's not just anything ending in ism ○ Terrorismis a strategy • Democracyis an ideal • Religion : emphasizesgod and afterlife – who are you? ○ Both emphasizea tradition of thinking, passed through generations Human nature • What human beings are like • Competitive,cooperative,adaptable • View of human nature limitspoliticalpossibilities Freedom • Each ideology defines this differently- defenders of every ideology wants to be free • Single concept of freedom- 3 parts: agent, obstacle,goal • Every ideology shouldhave this – A is free from B to achieve,Be or becomeC • A is agent B is obstacleC is goal • Working class people should be free from exploitationby capitalistto producecreatively and independently Ideology and Revolution • Original meaning or revolution: return to an earlier condition • French revolution 1788: new meaning • Revolutiontoday means radicalchange • Overthrowing the old order Left and Right- on ideological spectrum • Meaning derives from the French revolution • Who sat on whichside of king in national assembly • Where you stand dependson where you sit Nationalism • Historical,territorialcommunitiesof belief • Active, distinctive • Ethnic origins,but createdby states • Combines with differentideologies Lecture 14 - Liberalism 1: Origins, Revolution, Capitalism October-29-13 11:45 AM What is liberalism • All liberals aim to promote individual liberty • Liberals value liberty Brian Barry on liberal states Three things to characterize the development of liberal states: ○ Religious toleration  Conformity in believing orthodox beliefs, liberal states ○ Freedom of the press, recognition of and insurance ○ Abolition of servile social status • No religious dogma can reasonably be held with certainty • Every doctrine should be opened to critical scrutiny • Fundamental equality of all human beings: inequality as an artifact Human nature and freedom • Rational, self-interested • Fair competition and equal opportunity • Individuals should be free from legal barriers, customs and conditions to live as they choose Medieval Europe • Religious conformity: roman church, forced to conform to one view about the nature of G-d • Ascribed status: one status fixed at birth – official Christian view is we are all equal – but compatible with inequality • Feudalism: web of hierarchal relationships, no exchange, no wage labor, no freedom of movement ○ Economic system that is land-based, “bondsmen”: bonded by labor • Challenging ascribed status: by joining you can better your life Martin Luther • Not a liberal Protestant reformation • Against church corruption: buying your way into heaven, get money from rich to build things to make people think they can get into heaven • Against priestly authority: says everyone has a connection with G-D • Tradition and ritual vs. Reading(in German) and doing(as G-D commands) • Promotesbeliefs of reformers Resistance and Freedom of Conscience • Luther and Calvin: non-resistance (could not actively resist, didn't have to obey) • Later Calvinists: right to overthrow: right to overthrow any ruler who denies tolerance of religious difference • Leads to religious toleration ○ Authority of government comes from consent of people Revolution Liberalism in England: 1 • 1640s: English civil war (economic class war, between land owning aristocracy and rising middle class) • King Charles was beheaded • 1651: Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan: believed in absolute monarchy/sovereignty),non-liberal conclusions but begin liberal • Hobbes: from liberal premises to non-liberal conclusions Liberalism in England: 2 • 1688: Glorious revolution: constitutional monarchy – monarch is not above the law, rules of law • Constitutional Monarchy ○ Revolution in understanding of political authority Monarch limited by constitution ○ Monarch limited by constitution • Freedom of worship for dissenters ○ Recognition that there is an official church of England but that others will be tolerated • Locke on Toleration and Authority: defense of right to revolution Liberalism in America: 1 • 1763: No taxation without representation: mid 18 century the British were wanting to tax without consulting the people they were taxing (colonies and America) • Armed rebellion against British, then Independence from British crown Tom Paine Liberalism in America: 2 • 1776: Tom Paine’s Common Sense • Government is a necessary evil • Legitimate government protects our natural rights ○ Unlike British who were violating American rights to private property Thomas Jefferson(1743-1826) Liberalism in America: 3 • 1776: Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence ○ Government derives legitimacy from consent of the governed • “All Men are Created Equal” • Liberalism and republicanism ○ Liberalism: We know the government is a potential threat but we need it ○ Civic virtue, political participation ○ Recognize that government is potential threat to freedom ○ Protect individual rights ○ Republican: Worry about corrupt of political system, political participation, self-government,not just individual freedom Liberalism in France: 1 • The old order’s three features: ○ Religious conformity:Roman Church – everyone up to 1789 must be catholic ○ Aristocratic privilege (special rights for nobles, including exemption from taxes) ○ Political absolutism: dominance of King Louis (above the law) Liberalism in France: 2 • 1789: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen • Liberalism: Tolerance, equal, opportunity, constitutional government • Republicanism: fraternity, civic virtue, emphasis on community – all equal and share a common purpose Capitalism Liberalism and Capitalism: 1 • Seeking economic liberty: seek own economicopportunities • Against mercantilism: promote our own interests as a country is to protect certain industries through tariffs or restrictions • Inter-country competition is NOT a zero sum game: everyone will end up benefiting ○ Used to think if we are ahead another country is behind Liberalism and Capitalism: 2 • 1714: Mandeville’s Fable of the Bees: supports everyone’s right to their own economic interest • Mandeville: Private vices generate public benefits: look our for own profit, will generate public benefits • Physiocrats: free traders, removal of regulations, free-running economy,allow competition, leave people alone (laissez faire) Lecture 15 - Liberalism 2 : Liberalism 2: 19th Century, Neo-Classical vs. Welfare October-29-13 12:39 PM Liberalism, 20th Century Adam Smith Smith on Capitalism: 1 - 1776: Smith’s Wealth of Nations: never used the word capitalism but believed in it - Economic competition is fair and efficient - Invisible Hand: from self-interest to the public good - Free trade benefits everyone Smith on Capitalism: 2 - Benefits the worst off: reduces price of good and other basic needs…it will raise the standard of living - Promotesinternational peace: through international free trade - Conductive to order and good government - Fosters self-reliance Smith on Government’s Role - Defend the country against attack - Protect property rights and maintain order - Provide public education and the infrastructure needed to do business Smith on Distributive Justice - Opposes trade barriers, but supports taxation to benefit the poor - Rejects prevailing view of the poor - The Poor are dignified, industrious, equally capable, and entitled to their fair share of goods According to Jones’s lecture, Smith argues that capitalism: A. will lead to the disappearance of states B. benefits the worst off C. promotes disorder D. fosters dependency 19th Century Utilitarianism - Jeremy Bentham o Laissez-faire  Individuals are the best judgers of our own interest. Government should leave individuals alone to give them the freedom to promote their own economic,social and political happiness o Expand voting rights  Promotesfreedom and security  Minimal state interference in economy,increase amount of people involved in political activity Josh Stuart Mill o Threat of Public Opinion o Tyranny of the Majority  Introducing public voting can be detrimental to freedom and interests of minorities  Liberal democracy:limited by constitution that recognizes that no democratic decision can violate basic rights  From Laissez-faire to socialism  Free for individuals to do whatever they like as long as they are not harming anyone else – common ownership, equal participation, individual freedom of action  Not strait forward on economic position Herbert Spencer o Neo-classical liberal o Spencer’s world view:  Social evolution: society is ever-evolvingand progressive  Absolute property rights: individual freedom means we should all possess certain rights that cannot be restricted by the state – no taxation, state imposition.  Ineffectiveness and corruption of welfare programs: objects to State encouraging welfare because they  Ineffectiveness and corruption of welfare programs: objects to State encouraging welfare because they don’t enable us to express or perform our duty of charity - Survival of the Fittest (influenced by Darwin) Spencer on Distributive Justice o Why no State Aid to the poor?  Those who survive in current economy deserve to survive  Welfare should not interfere with the struggle for survival  “Let nature take its course”  State should stay out of the way and let individuals be free to do what they want 1. They are unfit to survive: not worth helping because they are weak 2. Society is too complex to be controlled in the way governments want 3. Shouldn’t override property rights: believe in absolute private property rights, welfare overrides it’s purpose Thomas Hill Green Welfare liberal o Government can be a positive force for individual freedom by ensuring the everyone has equal opportunity Green’s Welfare Liberalism: 1 o Government is not merely a necessary evil o The State can advance individual liberty by promoting equal opportunities for all Green’s Welfare Liberalism: 2 o Two concepts of freedom o Negative Freedom: absence of restraint, free when no one is preventing me from doing what I want to do o Positive Freedom: actual ability to do something worth doing in commonwith others, collectivizing idea that we are all in this together Green’s Welfare Liberalism: 3 o Main obstacles to freedom: poverty, ignorance, prejudice, sickness o Government can promote freedom through poor relief, public schools and hospitals, and regulation of working conditions Liberal Justice o Rawls:  Equal basic liberties  Fair equality of opportunity  Income and wealth inequalities only if they benefit the worst-off  Nozick: Minimal state: a rights-protecting agency permitting capitalist acts between consenting adults– goal is to promote individual freedom – protecting property rights Nozick on Good Lives o Each of us has our own conception of the good human life o The state should allow individuals to design their own lives o Which society would be best for Gandhi, Angelina Jolie, Einstein, Thoreau, Picasso, Babe Ruth, and Professor Jones? o Liberal society as one in which individuals are possible to pursue the widest possible range of good lives? Rights, liberties, toleration - Emphasis on civil and political rights o Freedom of conscience, religion, speech, press, opinion, right to vote, right to run for office, security of the person, etc. - Protections for basic liberties of conscience, speech, association, occupation and sexuality - Toleration: separation of church and state Neutrality, pluralism, capitalism - State is neutral between conceptions of the good o State cannot appeal to the truth of some comprehended conception as the basis for a law o No favoring of views - Permanent pluralism of modern society No enforcement of one view o No enforcement of one view - Pro-capitalism and anti-capitalism o Pro: Mandeville and Smith: free markets o Anti: Welfare liberals: worry about power that may oppress individuals: state and corporate power are threats o Spectrum of views: all our concerned with equal freedoms for the individuals Why individual freedom? - State coercionand paternalism are counter-productive o Forcing people will not make them better off - Showing respect for autonomy and our capacity to make our own choices o Decide for ourselves how to life our life – gives life value - Peaceful coexistence (toleration) versus respect for autonomy o Toleration liberalism/Reformation:people can do their own thing, tolerance of all differences as long as no one is harming each other o Autonomy liberalism/Enlightenment:most important value for individuals is the capacity to make our own decisions Lecture 16 - Conservatism 1 November-11-13 9:52 PM Conservatism in General: 1 - Traditionalism o Custom, way things have been done, “conserving the tradition”, varies in different countries o Social and political continuity – value in this o Supporting status quo o Gradual change is necessary to preserve things, suspicious of radical change - Skepticism about political knowledge o What we know derives from what we inherited not necessarily knowledge - Organic conceptions of society and the state Part of something larger o Formed by our social institutions and practices o Part of the body politic o Maintain society/state’shealth rather than individual Conservatism in General: 2 - Classical conservatives:Flawed human beings, hierarchy, tradition, anti-revolution - Modern conservatives:small government,free markets,strong military Conservatism in General: 3 - Conservativesvs. Liberals o Liberals: For rational justification and transparency, against superstition and tradition o Conservatives:suspicious of reason, favour sentiment over scrutiny (reason, justification) Edmund Burke - Against radical, revolutionary,social experiments o Opposes French revolution o Rejected revolutionaryviews about government,revolution,freedom, human nature Burke’s Career - An Irishman in the British parliament - Critic of the French Revolutionof 1789 - Against the revolutionaries’views of human nature, society, freedom,revolutionand government Human Nature and Society: 1 - Creatures of habit, custom, tradition o Not rational creatures of thought - Humans are not perfectible or changeable by social engineering - Against the idea of atomistic,isolated individuals - Organic conception of society o Part of a social web, social fabric o Can’t separate the strands, have to keep it together o Reciprocal relationships and obligations that characterize the society Human Nature and Society: 2 - Against the liberal, legalistic, business-like social contract - Society is not created by our consent - Sacred intergenerational covenant Freedom - Freedom is not necessarily good - Rights are concrete,not abstract and universal – natural rights are an abstraction - Ordered liberty to act in accordance with society’slaws and traditions In favor of a manly, moral, regulated liberty o In favor of a manly, moral, regulated liberty Revolutionand Reform - Revolution,radicalism, innovation are all mistaken o Bound to fail, unintended consequences - Reform:careful, gradual, recognizes complexity of society - Prefer “prejudice” to abstract reason o Prejudice: favoring the tradition, customs, habits and inherited wisdoms of society Burke on Government - Reflective,responsible, representatives - Trustees who prefer their own judgment to the people’s opinion - Natural aristocracyand little platoons Joseph de Maistre - Central figure in the “French reaction” - Critic of liberalism, universality, enlightenment - Maistre Reactionary o Wanted to turn back the clock before the French Revolution Throne and altar o Monarchy and catholic church o State needs a religious foundation Against enlightenment rationality o Don’t use reason to question institutions of society and overcomeignorance and prejudice o Rejects perfectibility of man o Cannot reorganize society to perfect people Praises instinct o We instinctively follow what is customary o Obey what is traditional without question o Order requires system of authority with a monarch at the top o Wants a Hangman o Should be impressed by power: a majesty o Lost from modern society Lecture 17 - Conservatism November-12-13 8:22 PM Conservatism Catholic Church: Pope Pius IX Representativeof conservativereactionary response to revolutionin Europe - - Rejection of liberalism Pope Pius’s Syllabus of Errors - Human reason requires G-d’s help to discover truth and promotehuman welfare - Catholic religion is the only religion of the State - Rejection of central liberal claims Cultural Conservatism:1 - Wordsworth,Coleridge et al. o Resist ideas of French and Industrial revolution o Burke influences them - Favor emotion over reason - Response to industrial revolution: o Worried about commercialactivity o Reject pursuit of profit and material wealth Cultural Conservatism:2 - Industry is dehumanizing and alienating o Similar to Marxist views o Promoteidea of nostalgia for rural past, worried about mechanization - Commerceand capitalism vs. culture and spirituality - Favor simple, rural, communallife o Religion, chivalry, heroism - Natural hierarchy Michael Oakeshott1901-1990 Oakeshott’sConservatism - Modern-day Burkean - Protectand preserve the social fabric o Interconnected,intergenerational, dependent on each other o Pursuit of profit should not be first in mind - Interconnect individuals - Politics is attending to social arrangements o Gradual change o Radical action is destruction Richard Posner on Conservatisms - Economicconservatives - Ball and Dagger call them ‘Individualist Conservatives’ - Freedom to compete without governmentinterference Individualist Conservatives - Ronald Reagan (US Pres, 1981-1989) - Margaret Thatcher (UK PM, 1979-1990) Richard Posner on Conservatism - Economicconservatives o Minimal governmentand state intervention o Tax-cutting - Security conservatives Foreign policy o Foreign policy o “Neo-conservatism” o Big governmentand $$$ - Social (Mainly religious) conservatives o The religion right o State should intervene over abortion, gay rights, to make sure certain religious beliefs are instituted - Disagreementamongst conservatives o Bound to have conflicting views Lecture 18 - Socialism 1: Origins, Marx November-19-13 8:11 PM Socialism in General: 1 - Basic goods should be produced with the aim of benefitting all o Cooperationover competition o Opposed to goods being produced to benefit the producer - Propertyshould be owned by society o Major means of production publically owned or strongly regulated by the state - Against capitalism and its unequal distribution of power o Unequal distribution of wealth Socialism in General: 2 - Industrial revolutionled to dangerous, difficult, undignified factory work - Moral objections to exploitation,poverty,and greed o Requires exploitationof man by man - ‘Scientific” claims about historical change and the end of capitalism Michael Freeden: Core socialist ideas 1. Group (class) as basic social unit 2. Equality: removehierarchy, redistribute wealth based on need a. Similar to communistprinciple b. Basis of need c. Equalization of life prospects 3. Labor (productiveactivity) is the main feature of human nature 4. Ideal of welfare or flourishing: end poverty,promotefree participation a. Everyoneshould participate 5. History is going somewhere,and we can help it get there Early Socialism Thomas Moore1478-1535 - Communal ownership - Abolish money and private property - No more pride, greed, envy o Considered negative emotions - Conflict and inequality are unnatural Saint-Simon 1760-1825 - Class-based historical stages - Belief-based economicsystems - Replace capitalist inefficiency and waste with expert planning Robert Owen 1771-1858 - Bad conduct stems from a corrupt social system - Capitalism rewards greed and selfishness - Produce cooperativelyfor the public Marx 1818-1883 Marx’s Life - Drinking, dueling, law, philosophy - Radical journalism: Paris, Brussels o Couldn’t becomeprofessor because he is born Jewish and is Atheist - 1849-1883:‘Temporary’Exile in London o Can live away from governmentintrusion Belonged to several revolutionarygroups including CommunistManifesto o Belonged to several revolutionarygroups including CommunistManifesto o Political Agitation o Family and Poverty:non-Jewish wife, impregnated housekeeper,lived in poverty,never held proper job, maintained by his friend Engles o Scholarly Research - Marx’s House, Dean Street Soho, London, UK British Museum Reading Room - o Where Marx spent most of his time Themes in Marx - Religion - Alienation - History - Economics - Human Nature Religion: - G.W.F. Hegel o Cannot understand Marx without Hegel o History as the developmentof spirit (geist – spirit/mind) o G-d comesto self-awareness o Universal Spirit o World as creation of universal mind - Ludwig Feuerbach o Dismissiveof idea of G-d at all o We create G-d in our own image o Secret of theology(study of G-d) is anthropology (study of people) o We alienate our human capacities for knowledge,power, and goodness - Marx on Religion o Created in response to poverty and suffering o Soul of a soulless creature o “Religion is the Opium of the People”  Produces euphoria (A ‘Buzz’)  Painkiller  Can render you incapable of flourishing o Need to removecause of religion Alienation: 1 - Human essence detached from human existence - What we are and how he live separate - Creative producers whose work is punishing, degrading, commodities o Human nature is social, productive and creative o Work in free market - Workers’ lives are subject to alien forces Alienation: 2 - Alienation from the product o Workers produce products but have no say about what happens to the product, beyond their control o Mystified by our own creations o Dominatedby what we create and by market forces - Alienation in productive activity - Alienation from our species-being o No creative or cooperativecreation o Essence of free market is competition - Alienation from other human beings All that links us to each other is not that we want to produce to make others happy, it is the o All that links us to each other is not that we want to produce to make others happy, it is the link of money o Should connect in a much more personal way Marx’s Theory of History: 1 - All of history up to now is the history of class struggle - History is the growth of human productive power (The ‘ProductiveForces’ tend to develop) - Our production methods develop within economicstructures (Slavery, feudalism, capitalism…eventuallycommunism) Marx’s Theory of History: 2 - Economicstructures have characteristic ‘relations of production’ o Rise and fall according to how well they improveor reduce human productive power - Society is like a three-level building o Legal and political superstructure o Relations of production  Bourgeoisiesand Proletariat o Forces of production Marx’s Theory of History: 3 - Level of developmentof productive forces explains the nature of the economicstructure - Economicstructure determinesthe legal and political superstructure - Objection: Can’t capitalism continue? - Need new economicstructure to help productive forces develop Lecture 19 - Socialism 2: Non-Marxist Socialism, Socialism Today November-19-13 8:11 PM Capitalism and Communism - Capitalism o Innovation: Powerof markets o Globalization: productive powers of human beings, capitalism spreads throughout the world o Exploitation:extraction of surplus labor, workerproduces more value than what workeris paid, owner extracts surplus work that worker does - Communism o Democracy:majorityare exploited workers that should overthrowowners o Public control of production Marx on Human Nature - Universality:Overcomingdivisions - National differences should be taken away - Working men of all countries should unite - Objection: Particularityis permanent - Human beings are creative producers o Creative and cooperativework is what humans need o Unalienated when what we do and what we create expresses our inner selves - Objection: Labor is not our essence…Religion?Language? Conscious thought? Anxiety about future? o Labor is the thing that makes us human? Very controversialclaim > Socialism After Marx Friedrich Engels • Originator of official Marxism after Marx's death in 1883 • Exposed poverty and criticized subordination of women • Materialism • Scientific socialism Eduard Bernstein Revisionist (believed the that social Marxism needed to be revised) (questioned some of the predictions of Marx). Evolutionarysocialist • Morality:freedom, respect, means ( human beings should be treated with respect) ( if you wish to make society better need to consider only the means not the goal) • Politics and economics Socialism, Fascism Socialism After Marx (Continued) Vladimir Lenin • Russia: semi-feudal agrarian economy,political autocracy • Intellectual and practical support for revolution • Class struggle and goal-orientedlack of concern for moral constraints • Small, organized, disciplined revolutionarymovement • Against revisionismand trade-union consciousness • Communistparty as revolutionaryvanguard Stalin • Man of steel: ruthless, expert in oppression and 'purging' • Stalin as the guide of the party • 'socialism in one country' • 'dialectical materialism' • 'dialectical materialism' Communismin Practice • Massive crimes and repression • Planned economyand state ownership • Decisivein defeating Nazi Germany • Rapid industrialization, Mass Education, Full employment,Equality • Industrialization, ,education, employment,equality Fabian socialism • Shaw, Wells, Webb • Parliamentarypath to socialism • Slow, patient, gradual movementtowards socialism • British labour party from 1900 • Nationalization, social welfare Brian Barry on Socialism • Socialism is a theory of citizenship • Anti-capitalist: supports collective control of economy • Collective action to overcomeundesirable consequences of individual actions ~ SOCIAL DEMOCRACY ~ Lecture 20 - Fascism In Class start November-21-13 12:13 AM Fascism Fascism: Some features • 'fasces' (origin) • Totalitarian • Total control on all aspects of society (no levels of authority) • Wipe out all German parties besides for one, us • Reactionary • Against reason, in favour of radical change • Reacting against liberalism, individuals (not valued in fascism), socialism (forget about class identity, you are not a worker, you are a German) • Cult of Leadership • Mass mobilization through a monopolisticpolitical party • Destruction of all intermediate organizations (such as Trade Unions) • Will still have but will be parody's, no organizations can state views • Abolition of privacy • Everything is subject to the power of the state • Rule of law replaced by arbitrary violence Fascism: Background Ideas • Counter-enlightenment • Anti-liberal • Enlighten was a liberal movement for knowing things and ideas • Rejects reason, equality, individualism • Nationalism (understand yourself as a member of a nation) • Elitism – a belief that there are a small number of people in any society who either should or necessarily will lead or rule the rest • Irrationalism – the belief that human beings are moved more by instincts, urges, or subconscious forces than by reason • Appeal to people's emotions not reason Benito Mussolini's Fascism • National unity – make Italians realize that they are Italians first and not identify themselves by class or anything else • Liberalism 'no'; obedience 'yes' • Blindly follow leader, do not question • Celebration of war – he set out to make Italy a military power so that it would again be a great empire and had ambitions of war and conquest • Individual sacrifice and state worship Who argues that means, or moral considerations,are as important as the victory of socialism? A. V.I. Lenin B. Joseph Stalin C. Eduard Bernstein D. Mao Zedong E. I.P. Nightly Adolph Hitler 1889-1946 Hitler’s Nazism: 1 - Two explanations for Hitler’s rise to power: 1. Economic:desperation and poverty caused by mass unemployment 2. Charismatic:personality cult, magical gaze - Vote for us is a vote for dictatorship - “We are intolerant, we are not like them (the other parties)” - Victory by force, by coercion,by death Hitler’s Nazism: 2 - Resentment about end of WW1 - Resentment about end of WW1 - German people (‘Volk’) must defeat Jews, communists,and liberals o Promoted ideas such as universal communities,peace, etc. that the Nazi’s believed were false sentiments and claims - Need a strong, dominant leader (‘Fuherprinzip’) o Natural leader who proves through his charismathat he can achieve absolute, unrestrictedauthority over everyone Hitler’s Nazism: 3 - Nationalism: “we are the chosen people”, racist, believed they are superior, national allegiance is a matter of your blood and race o It's not civic nationalism,it’s a racist nationalism - Lebensraum (living space): justificationto occupy Poland, attack Soviet Union, etc. - Social Darwinism:survival of the fittest, enhance and promote aggressive struggle of survival o Racism and Anti-Semitism o Only the fittest races survive o Belief of superiority of Arian race (no scientificbasis) o Racially pure destiny o Fascism + Racism = Nazism - Develop a theory to justify what they are doing, created theory that jew's, communists,etc. are subhuman - Opposite: an obligation to humanity o Shared by liberalists,communists,feminists,Jews, etc. o Basis of equality no matter race, ability, disability, etc. Fascism: Key Themes 1 (Paxton) - Sense of crisis needing radical solution - Subordination of individuals to the group - One’s group is a victim whose enemies must be attacked Fascism: Key Themes 2 (Paxton) - Fear of liberalism,class conflict, and other alien forces - Permit community integration by violence if necessary - Need for authority by natural (male) leaders embodying group’s destiny Fascism: Key Themes 3 (Paxton) - Superiority of leader’s instincts to abstract and universal reason - Celebration of violence and will, when devoted to group’s success - Right of the chosen people to dominate others without moral restraint Proposal - Glorify the nation - Wipe out opposition - Celebrate violence in the name of solidarity - Rule by sadistic, instinctual leader - Submissionto supreme leader’s authority Lecture 21 - Feminism November-28-13 12:14 PM Feminism - Eliminating the subordination of women - History of sexual inequality, injustice and domination - Aristophanes’ Lysistrata (211 B.C.): Asserting Women’s Power o Famous Greek War o Opposes war o Women’ssex strike for peace Mary Wollstonecraft - A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) - Enlightenment commitmentto reason and equality - Women and men are equals in possessing the capacity to reason - Women are oppressed by social institutions, including education - Differences between men and women are artificial not natural - Changing institutions (Marriage, education, etc.) will end inequality Liberal Feminism - Overcomeovert discrimination without rational foundation o Ex. Right to vote - Change laws and institution - Goal: Equalize opportunities for women and men Women get the vote Proportionof women in the lower house 1. Rwanda 56% 46. Canada 46% 58. UK 22% 80. USA 17% Radical Feminism: 1 - Overcomingsexist attitudes and beliefs - Women are subject to their own internalized harmful attitudes and false beliefs - Emphasize women’sdifference Radical Feminism: 2 - Male bias in setting the terms of the debate - The air we breathe: “The structure and values of American society” (Catharine MacKinnon) - Women had no role in creating the rules of the game The Justice-Care Debate - Is justice a gendered concept? - Women value connectedness - Men value separation and abstraction o Dispassionate thought Gilligan’s In a Different Voice - Justice o Seeking abstract rules o Moral mathematic - Care o Consider particularities o Case-by-case moral reasoning o Narrative of relationships Justice and Care: Some Issues Justice and Care: Some Issues - Different voices don’t match men and women - Need justice as a background virtue - We need universal moral principles Lecture 22 - Liberation Ideologies November-27-13 12:47 AM Unlike liberal feminists, radical feminists: A. Reject capitalism B. Emphasizedifference C. Fought to get women the vote D. Support ‘Fee Love’ with all the ‘ Radical Dudes’ Racism - What racism is o Denial of rights and of dignity to people of different races o Refusal to recognize rights on the basis of people’s race or geographical origin o Devaluing of certain character traits that are alleged to be typical of particular groups of people - Difference and Power o Belief that they are different from us o There are the Other o Since they are different, we should treat them unjustly or undignified - Anti-racism: challenging race as a category o Point out invalid inference (mistake in thinking) that a racist makes based on superficial differences Martin Luther King, Jr 1929-1968“I have a dream” - All men are created equal o Freedom, equality, justice, harmony - Content of character, not skin color - Free at last! Black Liberation - Integration versus black nationalism (Martin Luther King Approach) o Eliminate racist laws, discrimination in employment,education and housing - What to do o Affirmative action: ex. Quota system o Guaranteed political representation o Historical compensationfor slavery o The Canadian Context Gay Liberation - Ancient Greeks versus Monotheisms - Gays as an identity group o Demand for formal, positive recognition o Equally worthy not just tolerated o Overcominglegal discrimination  Concerned an illness s and mental disorder by APA until 1972  Legalized in 120 countries, illegal in 80  Overcominghomophobia  Sports – Varsity Blues Aboriginal Peoples:1 - Distinct Nations o Membersof which share an identity and a territory o Movementin the second half of the 20 century - The Native Peoples o History of conquest (by Europeans) an occupation (of land) incorporated into states run by foreigners and incorporated by violence,treaty or both Local native cultures demeaned by the European settlers o Local native cultures demeaned by the European settlers - Overcomedomination and restore pride and dignity – key move Aboriginal Peoples:2 - Maintain traditional ways of life o Hunting, fishing, beliefs, still participate in modern world - Land claims, treaty rights - Powersof self-government o Independence and right to rule themselves Human Treatment of Animals - Using animals o Food, clothing, pets, sport, labor, company, gambling, entertainment - The traditional view o Animals exist for our use - Why disregard non-human animals? o Lack ability to speak, humans made in image of G-d, distinct qualities that separate non- human animals from humans, ability to reason Challenging the Traditional View - Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859) o Showed humans are not special, we descend from commonancestors with every other living thing o Cruelty to animals and slavery – two greatest moral failings - Sensitivity to animal suffering o Bentham: “Animals have been denied rights only because humans have been able to tyrannize over them” o Disregard for animals is a form of discriminatio
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