Political Science – December Exam Review.docx

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Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

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December 6, 2013 Political Science – Exam Review Exam Content  Lectures from October 24 (Ideology & Ideologies)  Ball and Dagger – everything except chapter 2  Wolff, IPP – chapter 6  Wolff, Ethics – chapter 2 – 7 (about 3 questions per chapter) Ideology  Systems of ideas with histories o “Anything with history is impossible to define”  Aim to shape social change  4 functions of any ideology (know each of each one) – explanation, evaluation, orientation, political program o Triangular models of freedom  Brian Barry on liberal ideas (lecture) o Fundamental equality of all human beings: inequality is an artifact o Every doctrine should be open to critical scrutiny – nothing is too sacred o No religious dogma can reasonably be held with certainty – tolerance of religion Liberalism  Medieval Europe & the Reformation – Martin Luther & feudalism  Liberalism in England, America and France o 17 century – Glorious Revolution December 6, 2013 o 18 century – American and French Revolutions o Hobbes, Locke, Paine, Jefferson and the French Declaration  Adam Smith o Capitalism, though regulated o The role of the state o Distributive justice  Policy promotes the worst off  Later debates o Spencer’s neo-classical liberalism  Social Darwinism – “survival of the fittest”  Minimal state o Green’s welfare liberalism  Welfare state created by Bismarck – a conservative – to run Germany extremely efficiently – it was a means to an end  Welfare state helps to liberate population from poverty, poor health, hunger, etc. o Rawls vs. Nozick  Rawls – welfare liberal  Nozick – minimal statist/conservative (tax is unjust, slavery) Conservatism  General o Traditionalism December 6, 2013  Society is setup through the conglomerate knowledge of past generations o Skepticism about political knowledge  Better the devil we know than the one we don’t o Organic conception of society and the state  Society is an organism and each part has to do its job sufficiently for it to run successfully o Classical conservatives – flawed human beings, natural hierarchy, respect tradition, anti-revolution  Comes from Burkes reactions to the French Revolution o Contemporary conservatives – small government, free markets, strong military  “Trying to combine the three is like trying to pull a rabbit out of a hat” – difficult, an illusion  Edmund Burk o Human nature  Fundamentally flawed o Society  An organism of human cells and organs o Revolution and reform  Revolution is sudden, radical, untested change  Slow reform is more effective – better a small good than a large evil December 6, 2013 o Government and representation  No overly centralized state – “little platoons” th  19 century conservatism o De Maistre  People should respect the majesty of the crown and its institutions – fear  “Don’t appeal to their reason, appeal to their gut” o Catholic Church (Pius IX)  Rejects liberalism  Claims Catholicism as the one true religion  Denies we can successfully progress from human reason o Cultural conservatism  Emotion is superior to reason  Posner on conservatism (lecture) o Economic conservatives  Minimal state, low taxes, free and unregulated markets o Security conservatives  Strong military for foreign policies, tough laws on crime o Social (mainly religious) conservatives  Anti-abortion, a role for the Church in political life, anti-gay marriage, pro gun o Disagreements among conservatives – like any
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