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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Bruce Morrison

FINAL: Political Science Exam: Friday, 11 2014 Lecture 13: Parties: Tied to Modern, Representative Democracy (when parties come into existence) - institutions within modern democracies - Parties appear on their own because people feel a need for them Interest Groups: do not try to win elections, but parties DO try to win elections and try to govern  requires wide-ranging program - Competition between parties leads them to try to appeal in a broad sense for a variety of issues Party Types: - Cadre: part of the elite that surface in 19 C that form around a major aristocrat, to win campaign and then reorganize (disappeared) • Vanguard: those possessed with knowledge that allows them to govern - Mass: come into existence in response with the emergence of industrialization, potential for mobilizing, can contend with cadre because they can organize the people and draw do’s from the established elites - Catch-All: brought a lot of members and used the party to win elections, tended to move away from the mass party and mutes ideological consideration and pretend to be things to all people, stress membership and limited influence and emphasize competition struggle - Left-Wing: distribute wealth, encourage change - Right Wing: maintenance of order, limited change • *Be able to identify difference between both* - Party Organization: Equality or Oligarchy? • Many Scholars discovered that even the most equal parties change - Party Functions: • Representation: representing society as a whole, parties allows for the needs and interests incorporated in government • Recruitment: finding developing our future leadership, parties identify them, parties identify, cultivate, trained, and then present them as capable • Goal Formation: developing economic and social programs and proposals, • InterestArticulation and Aggregation: parties link groups of voters in a way that gives structure, consistency, and order to voter choice in they way they appeal and mobilize people • Political Educational: education and moving us to action, less today because of media but they still strive to perform that function • Structures Government: gives shapes and direction to government, the party has influence how power is organized, influences how policies are sold cultivated and enacted - Party System: regular patterns of interaction in parties - Features: • How many parties there are • Size of parties • Take ideologies into account - Structure: features that remain in place for a reasonable stretch of time - *Explanation: because we have developed parties that operate differently Lecture 14: Political Culture: basic attitudes and orientations towards political institutions and processes - Framing Political Culture: • Hartz: whatAmericans brought and left behind (bulk of futile Experience) • Almond and Verba: Civic Culture no uniform, democracy is a blend of ALL 3 individuals: participant, parochial, subject • Putnam: Social and Capital, through use becomes more plentiful, induces self interested individuals operate in a context to act in a trusting, cultural explanation and its Capital invest and banking brings capital more self interested individuals • Marx: class generate divide: our values and beliefs are based on class - Media: now a bigger part of our lives, gradually grown to be more significant in our daily lives - In the old days it would be framed by political socialization or education - Media has become more powerful - Approaches to Media: - Pluralist: fosters debate - Dominant Ideology: elite external media believe the media is influenced by the social economic power structure with no independence - Elite Value: elites internal media, believe that an elite represented within the media - Market: does no challenge us but represents/reflects the public - Media can either help or hinder democracy - Helps if it retains independence from elites and political powers - Hinders if the independence is challenged and is biased or bases info on scandals - New Media: challenging hierarchies, strengthening movements, changing campaign dynamics (speeches, direct contact, raising funds, different sections of populations) Lecture 15: Legislature: makes laws, enact Executive: implements laws Judiciary: interprets laws - From only executive to separated power to growing executive power - Political Executive: people who develop proposals within the cabinet that create support for these proposals - Bureaucratic Executive: receive the legislation and implement and enforce - “Need of Dispatch” = single executive? - Dual Executive: distinction within the democratic orders between the head of state and the head of government • Parliamentary: system we have a head of government that has earned the support of population in a party and we have a secondary head of state that focuses on ceremonial that does not govern or rule (the speaker or governor) • Presidential: is BOTH  commander and chief but is also the head of government, does not mean they are powerful though • Semi Presidential: a directly elected president (head of government) combined with direct election for assemblies and prime ministers (head of state) ex. France combines features of both parliament and president • Heffernan: Prime Minister does not need to become presidential because he has party control therefore making more powerful than president Lecture 16: - From secondary to executive power to centerpiece of modern democracy - Though now losing ground to executive, party, judiciary/ constitution - Separation of powers? Depends on System: • Presidential: independence from executive ex. US Congress • Parliamentary: fusion with executive ex. House of Commons - Legislative predominance over – MAY BE OK Structure of Assemblies: •
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