Politics Notes.doc

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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 1020E

Key Concepts 3October 5 2011TA EmaildnissanuwocaPolitical Culture Culturepatterns of beliefs and behavioursocial traits attitudes about politics amongst groupsinstitutional arrangementsgovernments bureaucracies Political Culturecultural attitudes towards politicsgovernmentattitudes beliefs values norms about political issues and ideascultural differences among groups and statesideology 3 categories of political cultureparochialnegative view of governmentlow participationcomplacentsubjectpositive view of governmentlow participation authoritariandeferentialparticipatorypositive view of governmenthigh participationgovernment will respond to demands Civiccomboneed some of all three to balance out a societystateorder 3 types of political culture viz social valuesengagement activitypolyarchalagreed social valuesactive citizen engagementgovernment efficacyfragmentedactive citizen engagement BUT disagreement on basic political rulessocial valuescollectivistlimitedno civic engagement BUT high agreement on the basic rulessocial values Inglehartmaterialist culturephysicaleconomic securitymoney house etcpostmaterialist cultureemotional spiritualselffulfillment freedom happiness social goals Social CapitalAlexis De TocquevilleRobert PutnamSocial networktrustreciprocitysocial developmentpolitical involvementpositive contributionsrules obeyed Some ValuesMulticulturalismAssimilationSecularizationPolitical Socialization Relationship with political culture intergenerational transmissionKey Concepts 3October 5 2011 Macro levelpolitical system agentsideasgovernment schools liberaldemocracy etc Individual levelhuman relationshipsnonstate actorsfriends peers family etcLaw Ruleenforcementcoercionviolence usually codifyhabit individualcustom groups culturesregularity behaviours Enforcementretribution punishmentrestitution compensationrehabilitation change future conduct prevent relapserestraint deterrence fear of retribution Laws may be followed without knowing the ruleignorance of the law is no excuse Laws may develop over time and be entrenched without deliberate creationTypes of Law Customaryexperience habits regularitiesTacit reasonno command not written Legislationdeliberativeconscious lawspoken by an authorityWritten downmajority of laws are not written down Common law Englands system exported around the world Combination of customary lawlegislation Precedentsbound by previous decisions Statuteslegislation Law codeset of interrelated rulesnot Common law QuebecSources of Law Natural lawinherent to humanspeople God given transcendental Positive lawposited by the state government or societyKey Concepts 4October 12 2011Classification Typology classification system for claiming broad similarities or differencesmakes analysis easiercomparisons Aristotles typology based on two questionswho rulesIn whose interest do they ruleWho RulesLawful common goodLawless private interestOneMonarchy UK UAETyranny North KoreaFewAristocracy Iran ChinaOligarchy Afghanistan RussiaManyPolityDemocracymob rule constitutional democracy Canada Nazi Germany Venezuela DickersonFlanagan Institutionsrelationship between legislativeexecutiveParliamentary vs Presidentialrelationship between centralizationdecentralizationUnitary vs FederalConstitutionalism Government is an instrument of society serves societys needs Power comes from the peopledemocracy legitimacy voting limited stateconstitutionallydelimited role for the state Rule of lawknown predictable impartial Discretion within legal parameterslaws encapsulate policiesrules eg police Recognized procedure for establishing deciding enforcing lawslegislatures courts petitionrecall many states have a constitution a set of fundamental rules and principles by which a state is organizedmost written constitution eg USAfew unwritten constitutionno single unified document but numerous laws and rules form a constitution eg UK usual elementsrights of citizens visavis other citizens and their governmentsdivision of powers of the centraltop level legislative executive judicialdivision of powers between different levels of governmentprocedures for changing the constitutioncan include conventionsunwritten practices rules and tacit agreements about operation of government etc
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