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Political Science Midterm 2.docx

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
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PoliticalScienceMidterm2NotesComparative Politics Theoretical ApproachesComparative PoliticsUnderstanding different approaches in similar contexts Subfield in political scienceMethod comparisonAgents individuals states institutions etc Structures capitalism states development etcRelationship between agentsstructuresVariety of approaches1 Institutional ApproachThis is how we think political science should be approached the favoured approach according to the textbook Governing institutions and the structures and agents that control themFoundationbaselinestatecraftDistinguishingfrom other disciplines knowledge Formal political science this is a highly controversial statementinstitutions are not the only definition of politicsLiberal democraciesthe standard the idea of authoritarian regimes is almost extinct and liberal refers to a specific type of freedom in votingbeing part of the political process Institutionsgovernment police Institutionalizationrule of law voting National governmentlegal duties required for example to tell you when they spent state moneygo to war Constitutionliberal democracies Agentsdivisionsbureaucracies courts military Legaldutiesin law actors responsibilities 3 extensions1Other governing organizationscompare to see if there is a differenceprovinces cantons municipalities Aboriginal government 2Political partieslinks to institutions predate or born from institutions 3Concretenot informal practices corruption duplicity InstitutionpeoplePositionperson that occupies it eg President of the United Statesthe position of the American President is more important than Obama The rolelongtermtrustrelianceInstitution shapes behavior Benefitsopportunitiesinterestsindividual behavior Institutional culturestandard operating procedures Logic of appropriatenessinstitutional norms that developPresident Bush and Hurricane Katrina Less Logic of consequencebest action for goalSean Penn helping in Katrina and HaitiCritiqueBuilt around problemsolvingwe make institutions to help solve a problemRarely independentChangewhen theres a problemwhen the institution has a problem it will change 2 Behavioural ApproachInfluence psychology driven Scienticiseanalysis interpretations Individualsinstitutionsindividuals have more of an importance Political attitudes behaviours choices views political party choices etc Public opinionDecolonizationeg Gandhi JFKWho decides Whyinstitutional behaviorrole of leaders opinionmakers Changeattitudes choiceseg United States and legalization of marijuana 3 Structural ApproachInfluence sociologyKarl Marx comparable to how Aristotle has impacted science Configuration of objective relationships between social groupsorganizations eg at the university you are registered as a number Groups collectivitiesindividuals institutions eg police have the positive right to use force as a part of societal hierarchyin certain situations different groups have important roles Frameworksparameters for actions and actorsSocieties produce individuals interests actionsEg Capitalism ConflictstruggleequilibriumMarx communist Utopia no more inequality or class differencemove away from capitalism and the stateMoore why democracy political balance Changestructures example of universities and international students 4 Rational Choice ApproachInfluence economical Methodological individualismnot based on looking at collectivities Individuals as rational maximisers of selfinterest we look after our selfinterest first Weber shoes of the decisionmakerI wouldwhat would you do Explanationinterests of actorswhat do they want Goals Goalways to achieveresult analyze this process Modelprediction2012 election Nate Silver predicted all 50 states and which way they would voteonly got 2 of them wronglooks at social phenomena and uses rational choice to predict Collective action problempublic goodsnot in any ones particular interest BUT can be environment Changeinterests5 Interpretivist ApproachInfluence philosophy anthropology humanitiesIdeaspeople institutions important point people and institutions may go one way but the ideas involved may go anothereg the apartheid in South Africa Assumptions constructions identities meanings and valuesTraditions codes cultures narratives discoursesSystem patternMental constructions ideaspolitics Hegelthe spiritstates borders Canadian means being polite kind saying sorry Changeideas meaningsComparisonEvidence test validityhow did something come about and whyWe analyze after something has happened cant recreate Reality correspond correspondence theory of knowledgeobjective vs subjective knowledge what is valid knowledge based in fact vs perspective or opinionProgressive research programnot all approaches seek this Truths truthsassumptions vs Truthsabsolute valid argument Multiple methodsmost scholars use more than one Political commitmentleaningLiberal democracyliberalinstitutional Capitalist oppressionMarxiststructural Critique enlightenmentpostmodernistinterpretivist Comparative Politics Research StrategiesResearch StrategiesHow do we find out about political systems processes and behaviorhow to we come to give claims to politics we observe
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