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Political Science December Exam Review.docx

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
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Ideology Part OneIdeologyNounA system of ideas and ideals esp one that forms a basis of economic or political policyThe Ideas and manner of thinking of a group social class or individualThe Four Functions of Ideologies1ExplanationWhy the socialpoliticaleconomic world is the way it isaMaking Sense of World Events2EvaluationWhy is it good or badaWe need to give reasons3OrientationHow you fit into the social worldaAn ideology provides a political compass4Political ProgramSays what should be done and how to do itaConception of a good society as a goalWhat are NOT IdeologiesIts not just anything ending in ismEx Terrorism A strategy not ideologySadoMasochism a HobbyDemocracy An IdealReligion Emphasizes GodAfterlifeHuman NatureWhat human beings are like Competitive Cooperative AdaptableThis Limits Political PossibilitiesFreedomEach Ideology defines freedom differentlyThere are three parts 1 Agent Individual 2 Obstacle Laws customs or conditions that block individual choice 3 Goal to live as one choosesA agent is free from B Obstacle to achieve be or become C GoalEvery ideology should be able to achieve thisIndividuals should be free from society to do what they likeWomen should be free from legal restrictions Example Driving CarsIdeology and RevolutionFrench Revolution 1789 New MeaningOriginal meaning of revolution Return to an earlier conditionRevolution means Radical Change Rip it up by the roots and start newOverthrowing the old order age of change revolutionSaid that ideology is a thing of the pastLeft and Right Extremely Difficult Issue BallDaggerMeaning derives from French Revolution Where you stood depended on who sat on which side of the kindSeating in the national assemblyFor or against changeoLiberal tend to be left wingoConservatives against change wanted to conserve right wingNationalismSometimes identified as an ideology Ball and dagger dont identify it as this Usually attached to different ideologies but not really one in itselfoExample Can be a socialist nationalistHistorical Territorial communities of belief what nations areNations didnt create states states created nationsCombines with different ideologies Combine nation with their ideological positionto be welsh is to be a socialistSovereign Final SayWhat is LiberalismAll liberals aim to promote individual liberty by trying to guarantee equality of opportunity within a tolerant society oLiberals Value LibertyBrain Barry 19352009Brian Barry on liberal states Key things that determine liberal statesoReligious toleration peace between groups but not toleration of different religions until the liberal stateoFreedom of the PressoAbolition of servile social statusNo one is the slave of anyone elseoLockeNo such thing as natural subordinationCharacteristic of liberal statemovement towards Equal RecognitionoCorresponding to each of those three is a set of liberal ideasHuman Nature and Freedom oRational Selfinterested MillClassic Exemplar of LiberalismoFair competitionEqual OpportunityoShould be free from legal barriers customs and conditions to live as they chooseMedieval EuropeReligious ConformityThe church was SalvationistsAuthoritativeRoman Church is the only true pathway to godLiberals called for freedom of religion and separation of the church and stateChurch used its powers to enforce conformity to church doctrineReligious and political authorities joined forcesAscribed StatusA Persons social standing is fixed or ascribed at birth
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