Complete Notes for Lecture_31-49

54 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E

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DemocracyLegitimacy How should the people ruleRepresentative democracy through elected reps A denial of democracy to the Greekswhat happened to selfgovernmentRousseau the moment a people gives itself representatives it is no longer freeBut Thomas Paine begins legitimizing a system of government capable of embracing and confederating all the various interestsRepresentative democracycame in stages aRepresentative institutions long preceded democracy bNotion of elected representatives grows in importance ISustains rule of the best in monarchies or republicsIIConstrains monarchsIIIAccommodates size of modern political communities cGradual extension of voting rightsdRepresentative institutions folded into democracyIBasis for executive accountability IIDemocracy involves parties in and out of control of assemblies Is representative democracy more than interrupted oligarchyBetween elections governments do care about popularity Though not evenlythe political business cycleoEarly term they do the unpopular stuffoTowards elections they try to make the voters happyPeople have various ways to influence government decision makinginterest groups socials movements mediaAnybody can stand for office subject to free and equal vote Majority or minority ruleDemocratic majorities supposed to reflect public interest or popular willNot clear these things exist Legal rational we accept the rules of democracy and so we can accept one group governing until we can toss them out Really temporary majorities giving authority to rule to competitive minorities How far should popular rule extendMost of the decisions in our lives are personal private Democracy is a procedure for making collective public decisionsall are affected so all should a voice and some degree of influenceHow large or small is this collective sphereaLinked to role of state questionbRadical or Rousseauian position cSocial democratic or economic democracy position dLiberal or libertarian position More and more privacy Liberal democracy limited or protective democracyLiberal democracy also developed over timeaLiberalism preceded modern democracy bLiberals struggled first for legal and constitutional constraints on monarchycOpposed full participation favoured voting based on property ownership and tax payingdAnticipated democratic society before political democracy eRelies on constitutional and institutional limits on popular rule protections of individuals freedom Robert Dahl Polyarchy aContestation or competitionbParticipation or inclusiveness cOpportunities for association deliberation and the formation of fully developed views dA polyarchy does not meet a democratic idealit is a regime that meets acceptable standards especially abeStoker agreesachievable democracy deliberation plus effective participation Democracy as universal valueNot consensual Sen people everywhere may have reason to see it as valuable Democracy as having intrinsic instrumental and constructive value Is democracy partial rather than universalaBiased in class termsbourgeois Marxist bBiased in economics termsmarried to capitalism cBiased in cultural termswestern development Danger that democracy seen as universal can be forced on other societies Democracys reachThree waves of modern democracyaFirst wave 18281926 western Europe USAbSecond wave 194362 India Israel Japan West GermanycThird wave 1974 on southern and eastern Europe Latin America parts of Asia and Africa Reverse waves of democracyaFirst reverse wave 192243 ItalyGermanybSecond reverse wave 195875 LatinAmerica parts of Asia Where are we now headedNo third reverse wave although some democratic collapses
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