Political Science Review.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Nig
Semester
Winter

Description
Political Science Review Global Problems Issues of Sovereignty: - transnational problems: reaching beyond or transcending national boundaries - trans-sovereign problems: not solvable by one state or by state actors - global problem = confronting sovereignty while trying to solve problems - Globalization: - facilitations (easier) - intensity (greater impact) - interdependence states relying on each other rather than do alone/self - spreading: immigration, disease - transferring: environment damage - borders - sovereignty of states Westphalia 1648 - jurisdiction - territory/borders - violence legitimate use of force - population - resources economy - government system, institutions, control - recognition by other states - sovereignty after 1648: - Onuf: deal with competing authority structures - majesties (respect) - postestas imperiandia (coerce & enforce rules) - stewardships (rule on behalf of citizens) - Spruyt: - rationalize resources & economies - one voice single authority - get rid of competing political organizations international agreements & equal standing - colonialism and tribunal peoples < outside capitalism - international agreements & equal standing - challenges = transsovereign issues: - need manage without closing borders - require cooperation - global economy open markets - today: - economic & social issues = interconnected - global economy open markets? Managing financial crisis but return to Performance Bonus culture - future of sovereignty: - nostalgic fiction in the age of the global economy Ohmae - retreat of the state Susan Strange: - defense of territory < developed - currency value < floating currencies & global - economic development < foreign direct investment - economic management < pressure to curtail fiscal or regulatory role = laissez faire - reduce social safety net < decrease spending & reduce taxes = cant help own population - lower taxes = less public works < better markets - unable to secure monopolies & certain states domestic industries - social safety net < decrease spending & reduce taxes for pub works & social benefits < decrease for markets - decisions about trade < states are marginal decision makers in trading - building infrastructure < privatize, proprietary rights, etc. - secure monopolies & domestic industries < global trade - skills revolution Rosenau: - growth of technologies to access government directly, check information, informed - diversity of skills needed by all actors - territorial less sovereignty Rosencrance: - control of land does not guarantee sovereignty Iraq - more things change Krasner - Spruyt = no political alternative to European Westphalia states sovereignty Secuirty: - during Cold War: dominated by state security and nuclear security framework - focus on alliance, nation security problems, nuclear issues - collective security - sovereignty to be protected - Post Cold War: state/nuclear security focus opposed and/or complemented by other conceptions of security: - economic - environmental - gender - food - human education, health care - regional - approaches: - diplomacy discussions between state officials - unilateralism pre-emptive strike - bilateralism 2 states free trade - multilateralism 3 or more states War: - focus of much of international relations research - 1945 95: 164 wars, or over 3/year - sources/causes of war: - only correlates - tangible issues: territory, wealth, colonies, people - intangible issues: ethnicity, religion, ideology, etc. - some correlates:- economic and/or political grievances - autonomy and independence - historically informed causes incitement by leaders (demagoguery) - share in resources - dismantling or constricting of the state - re-configurations of masculinity - now-recognized prevalent phenomena: - ethnic cleansing - rape & sexual assault - concern with weapons proliferation, knowledge/materials needed to produce - during Cold War: vertical proliferation increased numbers of weapons - post Cold War: horizontal proliferation spread of weapons to states with no previous knowledge/material - issues: - accessing fissile material - facility to weaponise - radiological dispersal devices: - disperse radioactive material to cause destruction, contamination, and injury - three types: - explosive; passive exposing large population; atmospheric transport through air currents - chemical/biological weapon, usable at different levels of effectiveness and quantity:- severe repercussions - more readily easier to transport and cloak - less stringent international regulations - not solely dependent on a few countries guarding the knowledge or resources for these weapons - next wave: genetic weapons - nanotechnology: microscopic molecular poisons, explosion & incendiary micro-materials, respiratory distress - peacekeeping: goal: keep warring parties apart and reach diplomatic settlements - since 1948: 56 operations, UN - peacekeeping: keeping parties apart - peace making: diplomacy, get parties talking - peace enforcement: enforce agreement State Forms of the Global North Liberal Democracies: - politics: - representative government - secret & regular elections ballot, time frame, term limits - political institutions: fair & predictable - loyalty to the state - institutionalized political participation voting, elections, political parties - laws protecting individual rights - opposition parties & movement supported, institutionalized - society: - based in equality - freedom of speech - highly urbanized - advanced infrastructure roads, hospitals, internet - high quality of life - provision of basic social services - economy: free market, post-industrial - regional & global influences: significant - protection of minority rights - qualities: - individual rights, legal system - social welfare, taxation redistribution, support for social needs - social contract between people & government - capitalism property, profit, free entry/exit from market/labour - democracy:- rule of law equality before law - elite theory groups/individuals who are the elite; decision-making - group theory/pluralism various interest groups, issue-based coalition - durable state structures: stable & durable state institutions - public supports institutions & legal system - bureaurcracy: professional, efficient, effective - territorial challenges: few or none internal sovereignty challenges - post industrial economy: little manufacturing/agriculture, more knowledge/technology base - employment: service-based jobs retail - high quality of life: - low population growth rates non-replacement level, immigration - low unemployment rates - more equitable distribution of wealth - higher caloric intake - queries: standard for all states to emulate/measure/follow - social problem need redressing: - women: mistreatment, lower pay, etc. - immigrants: minority rights Communist/Post-Communist States: - politics: authoritarianism - political institutions: semi-stable - loyalty to state, but opposed to leadership - institutionalized political participation, governed by few - oligarchy - law protecting individual rights - opposition parties & movement: none to tolerated within parameters not guaranteed, arbitrary use - society: freedom of speech - highly urbanized, varied infrastructure - quality of life: great to poor - provision of basic social services: poor or diminishing capacities - issues: arbitrary powers & capacity for providing - economy: free market, post-industrial but few jobs dramatically shrank economies after 1990s - regional & global influence: identity crisis, inward focus - once alongside west - some below various southern states - qualities: - centralized political control - elite rule, one party or one dominant party - hierarchy among leaders & institutions individuals over rule institutions - bureaucracy: large & inefficient - rigged, pre-determined elections - human rights: arbitrary, violated (group rights are more important than individual) - transitional state structures: - large state institutions, elite-dominated - military/coercion agencies remain dominant
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