Political Science Review.docx

20 Pages
Unlock Document

Political Science
Political Science 1020E

Political Science Review Global Problems Issues of Sovereignty: - transnational problems: reaching beyond or transcending national boundaries - trans-sovereign problems: not solvable by one state or by state actors - global problem = confronting sovereignty while trying to solve problems - Globalization: - facilitations (easier) - intensity (greater impact) - interdependence states relying on each other rather than do alone/self - spreading: immigration, disease - transferring: environment damage - borders - sovereignty of states Westphalia 1648 - jurisdiction - territory/borders - violence legitimate use of force - population - resources economy - government system, institutions, control - recognition by other states - sovereignty after 1648: - Onuf: deal with competing authority structures - majesties (respect) - postestas imperiandia (coerce & enforce rules) - stewardships (rule on behalf of citizens) - Spruyt: - rationalize resources & economies - one voice single authority - get rid of competing political organizations international agreements & equal standing - colonialism and tribunal peoples < outside capitalism - international agreements & equal standing - challenges = transsovereign issues: - need manage without closing borders - require cooperation - global economy open markets - today: - economic & social issues = interconnected - global economy open markets? Managing financial crisis but return to Performance Bonus culture - future of sovereignty: - nostalgic fiction in the age of the global economy Ohmae - retreat of the state Susan Strange: - defense of territory < developed - currency value < floating currencies & global - economic development < foreign direct investment - economic management < pressure to curtail fiscal or regulatory role = laissez faire - reduce social safety net < decrease spending & reduce taxes = cant help own population - lower taxes = less public works < better markets - unable to secure monopolies & certain states domestic industries - social safety net < decrease spending & reduce taxes for pub works & social benefits < decrease for markets - decisions about trade < states are marginal decision makers in trading - building infrastructure < privatize, proprietary rights, etc. - secure monopolies & domestic industries < global trade - skills revolution Rosenau: - growth of technologies to access government directly, check information, informed - diversity of skills needed by all actors - territorial less sovereignty Rosencrance: - control of land does not guarantee sovereignty Iraq - more things change Krasner - Spruyt = no political alternative to European Westphalia states sovereignty Secuirty: - during Cold War: dominated by state security and nuclear security framework - focus on alliance, nation security problems, nuclear issues - collective security - sovereignty to be protected - Post Cold War: state/nuclear security focus opposed and/or complemented by other conceptions of security: - economic - environmental - gender - food - human education, health care - regional - approaches: - diplomacy discussions between state officials - unilateralism pre-emptive strike - bilateralism 2 states free trade - multilateralism 3 or more states War: - focus of much of international relations research - 1945 95: 164 wars, or over 3/year - sources/causes of war: - only correlates - tangible issues: territory, wealth, colonies, people - intangible issues: ethnicity, religion, ideology, etc. - some correlates:- economic and/or political grievances - autonomy and independence - historically informed causes incitement by leaders (demagoguery) - share in resources - dismantling or constricting of the state - re-configurations of masculinity - now-recognized prevalent phenomena: - ethnic cleansing - rape & sexual assault - concern with weapons proliferation, knowledge/materials needed to produce - during Cold War: vertical proliferation increased numbers of weapons - post Cold War: horizontal proliferation spread of weapons to states with no previous knowledge/material - issues: - accessing fissile material - facility to weaponise - radiological dispersal devices: - disperse radioactive material to cause destruction, contamination, and injury - three types: - explosive; passive exposing large population; atmospheric transport through air currents - chemical/biological weapon, usable at different levels of effectiveness and quantity:- severe repercussions - more readily easier to transport and cloak - less stringent international regulations - not solely dependent on a few countries guarding the knowledge or resources for these weapons - next wave: genetic weapons - nanotechnology: microscopic molecular poisons, explosion & incendiary micro-materials, respiratory distress - peacekeeping: goal: keep warring parties apart and reach diplomatic settlements - since 1948: 56 operations, UN - peacekeeping: keeping parties apart - peace making: diplomacy, get parties talking - peace enforcement: enforce agreement State Forms of the Global North Liberal Democracies: - politics: - representative government - secret & regular elections ballot, time frame, term limits - political institutions: fair & predictable - loyalty to the state - institutionalized political participation voting, elections, political parties - laws protecting individual rights - opposition parties & movement supported, institutionalized - society: - based in equality - freedom of speech - highly urbanized - advanced infrastructure roads, hospitals, internet - high quality of life - provision of basic social services - economy: free market, post-industrial - regional & global influences: significant - protection of minority rights - qualities: - individual rights, legal system - social welfare, taxation redistribution, support for social needs - social contract between people & government - capitalism property, profit, free entry/exit from market/labour - democracy:- rule of law equality before law - elite theory groups/individuals who are the elite; decision-making - group theory/pluralism various interest groups, issue-based coalition - durable state structures: stable & durable state institutions - public supports institutions & legal system - bureaurcracy: professional, efficient, effective - territorial challenges: few or none internal sovereignty challenges - post industrial economy: little manufacturing/agriculture, more knowledge/technology base - employment: service-based jobs retail - high quality of life: - low population growth rates non-replacement level, immigration - low unemployment rates - more equitable distribution of wealth - higher caloric intake - queries: standard for all states to emulate/measure/follow - social problem need redressing: - women: mistreatment, lower pay, etc. - immigrants: minority rights Communist/Post-Communist States: - politics: authoritarianism - political institutions: semi-stable - loyalty to state, but opposed to leadership - institutionalized political participation, governed by few - oligarchy - law protecting individual rights - opposition parties & movement: none to tolerated within parameters not guaranteed, arbitrary use - society: freedom of speech - highly urbanized, varied infrastructure - quality of life: great to poor - provision of basic social services: poor or diminishing capacities - issues: arbitrary powers & capacity for providing - economy: free market, post-industrial but few jobs dramatically shrank economies after 1990s - regional & global influence: identity crisis, inward focus - once alongside west - some below various southern states - qualities: - centralized political control - elite rule, one party or one dominant party - hierarchy among leaders & institutions individuals over rule institutions - bureaucracy: large & inefficient - rigged, pre-determined elections - human rights: arbitrary, violated (group rights are more important than individual) - transitional state structures: - large state institutions, elite-dominated - military/coercion agencies remain dominant
More Less

Related notes for Political Science 1020E

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.