UNIT 3 Exam Summary.docx

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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2137
Ross Gibbons

Lessons 24 & 25  Sovereignty and Legitimacy International Agreements and Flying Down to Rio and Beyond Niccolo Machiavelli - Nothing more difficult than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things Thomas Hobbes - Life in the state of nature is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” Sovereignty - Jean Bodin, Six Liveres de la Republique 1583 - L7bu5vt5vtatin super 'above' coined by Jean Bodin...sought to establish civil peace by making the King sovereign about all and providing an ultimate authority to settle disputes peacefully - providing an ultimate authority to settle disputes peacefully - occasioned by the fierce battles for power in France - religion was used th the power hungry as the fuel for battle - The 1500’s - 16 century  period of lawlessness in which even small towns maintained tiny armies and peasants formed vigilante groups  a struggle to see who would govern modern France  fought in the name of religion  in 1572 the mother of the King Charles IX arranged to murder several thousand Huguenots who were in Paris to celebrate the wedding of Henry of Navarre (to Margot daughter of Catherine de Medici  this occasioned a series of struggles with even more bloodshed The State - The State: that combination of population, territory and sovereignty - in terms of the application of power the state means 'an action by a government at any level’ - Canada: • Population: 33,793,000 • Territory: 3,854,085 square miles or 9,984,670 square kilometres • Sovereignty: 2 borders with the United States, three borders with oceans Power - how to get people to comply with the orders or demands or rules of the state - from the French pouvoir to be able - can be intellectual, physical, social, political - also a medium of exchange (like money in economics) - in politics political power sought after, fought for, traded for - three forms of power: influence, coercion and authority Power: Influence - aimed at voluntary acceptance or compliance by convincing us of its validity - to persuade, to convince others to follow, to act or to desire similar objectives - what convinces us - intellectual arguments, emotional arguments, self-interest, appeals to solidarity - how are we convinced (by the resources of the state as decided by the government of the day) Authority and Legitimacy - compliance because one accepts the state's power and agrees that it is legitimate - authority (right of command) - obligation (sense of duty) - legitimacy (belief in rightness of government) - the state cannot exist or function without legitimate authority Political Economy – Politics and Economic self-interest - Human behaviour based on economic self-interest in a market capitalist economy - Even in democracies, elites make most decisions - Governments must favour elite economic interests - The state and its governments: • Policy and regulation favours elite group interests • Greater total wealth is a state goal • Wealth accumulation is a priority • Redistribution is either a low priority goal or not a goal • Military spending high permanent priority The UN - Security Council • 5 permanent members with veto power  US, Russia, China, France and UK • 10 other members 2 year terms • Almost perfect record of inaction - The General Assembly • 192 member states • Most not democratic • For poor states an appointment to the UN as a diplomat is the equivalent of Canada’s Senate....political reward for individuals of unsure merit • No enforcement mechanism - UN Convention Process • Lengthy advocacy period before calling a Conference • Agreement in advance (is possible) on major issues and implement details • Delegates from each state vote on the Convention o ratification process includes minimum number of state signatories o Time period for ratification • Each State must ratify (or not) the Convention • Convention enforced internally state by state • Internal enforcement must continue despite internal governmental change and external change - The Failure • It is tempting but perhaps inaccurate to describe Rio - United Nations Commission on Environment and Development - as a failure. • world environmental decline continues. • without a great world crisis it is difficult to drive forward the slow, costly and time-consuming process that constitutes the development and implementation of multilateral agreements. • Many forces - domestic and international - oppose even the most pressing change. - Failure of Rio • Aristotle: ”Democracy is directed to the interest of the poorer classes” • The 1992 World Summit on the Environment • held in Rio de Janeiro, June, 1992 • official title: The United Nations Commission on Environment and Development • a convention/agreement/treaty which must be: 1. signed by an authorized delegate from each country; 2. ratified by individual legislatures; 3. self-enforced by the national electorate - Leadup to the Earth Summit • in fact, a great deal of advance preparation and negotiation to produce whatever agreements could be reached prior to the actual Commission • such summits are largely public relations exercises...however like any convention or conference a lot of business can be done at them • leaked memo from William Reilly, the director of the US EPA: o suggested the biodiversity treaty be 'fixed' so the US could sign o focused US media attention on o raised the Conference to a much higher profile than the US administration (Bush Sr. Quayle) wanted - Ratification at home • possibly, if immeasurably, some results flowed from this which would otherwise have been denied • such results largely depend on strength of the machinery left behind: o to ensure ratification and compliance by signatory states o the ability of supporters in each signatory states to get their state to ratify - Treaties, Guidelines and Good Intentions • Treaties: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change • The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity • The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (27 principles outlining the rights and responsibilities of countries toward the environment)...a grandiose declaration of green good intent • A Statement of Principles for Sustainable Forest Management (15 principles) • Agenda 21...800 pages of green guidelines - Rio will not save the Planet • ...as the Economist noted: the planet will not be saved by Rio • ...the Climate Change Treaty enhanced the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) • a fund administered by the World Bank • intended to fund the climate change treaty, the biodiversity treaty and, likely, future treaties. • this fund was the focus of intense politicking by the developing nations who were intent on getting as much control as possible away from the World Bank Changing winds in the World of Political Climate - period prior to Rio was one of a warm and encouraging climate for environmental issues: strong economic growth in the 80's; the greening of the electorate (post-materialist values); the end of the cold-war; and the outstanding success of Brundtland – Our Common Future - in raising support and awareness - the immediate period after Rio was one of declining interest (particularly after the summit) with many industrialized countries facing problems with debt and deficit payments; continuing high levels of unemployment; and the persistence of the neo-liberal movement Climate Change and Small Island States - however the danger of global climate change threatens small island states (about 30 in number) plus the EU states - the fossil fuel industry had in fact strong spokespeople arguing, among other things, that global warming would be beneficial - GIRIFUSHI, Maldives October, 2009 — Members of the Maldives' Cabinet donned scuba gear and used hand signals Saturday at an underwater meeting staged to highlight the threat of global warming to the lowest-lying nation on earth. Canadian Politics Post Rio - in Canada, the 1993 federal election was fought not on environmental issues but on jobs, jobs, jobs - in the 1997 election all federal parties revealed that they were in favour of the environment and, then, the issue was largely ignored - why a more hostile climate: 1. public confusion about the problem 2. domestic and international efforts of powerful industries and lobby groups 3. domestic politics and the presence or absence of domestic lobbies • E.g. Switzerland - the less important fossil fuels are to your economy the more likely you are to support the Treaty 4. extensive efforts of the OPEC nations already suffering from the economic damage of low oil prices and, for many, from the costs of the Gulf War Canada and International Agreements - bilateral: two parties - multilateral: many parties - the international system is essential anarchical...there is no effective world government or police force... - the application of international law and organization is based on voluntarist principles International Activity 1. participating at the international level requires the acceptance of broad consensus forming procedures; 2. the international level often generates quality policy ideas; 3. in any event domestic and international politics (of, say, the environment) are clearly connected; and 4. 4. international agreements are made to promote domestic policy goals - generally, environmental policy is driven toward the international level Canadian Preferences - our national tendency is toward multilateralism and international institution building - we are likely to better with the US as part of a multilateral negotiation - international institutions are likely to provide a better guarantee of independence in foreign policy than a one- on-one deal with the Yanks Follow-up to Rio - Berlin - the Climate Change treaty provided three years for ratification - in March/April 1995 the signatories met again in Berlin - the 1992 Rio agreement called for all nations to stabilize their greenhouse-gas emissions at 1990 levels by the Year 2000 - at Berlin: Canada, the US, New Zealand, Australia were reluctant to commit to specific levels; while OPEC nations continued to argue against any agreement which would affect the burning of fossil fuels - Further meetings (e.g. Kyoto) have not succeeded in effective action Lecture 26 & 27  Wilderness, Wildlife and Biodiversity International Agreements and Wicked Problems - Wicked.... intended to or capable of harming someone or something...probably from the Old English wicca ‘witch’ - Wicked problems: • The problem is not understood until after the formulation of a solution. • Wicked problems have no stopping rule. • Solutions to wicked problems are not right or wrong. • Every wicked problem is essentially novel and unique. • Every solution to a wicked problem is a 'one shot operation.' • Wicked problems have no given alternative solutions. - Solving Wicked Problems - Problems ‘...challenge established social values and institutional frameworks, defy (easy) analysis and have no obvious solutions...’ - Stoett: ‘...deal primarily with multilateral arrangements because collective action problems of gravity demand a coordinated response among states, the participation of millions of people and the work of dedicated institutions...we will note regional and bilateral arrangements....importance of action at national and substate levels, including civil society and private industry.’ Definitions - Multilateral: an arrangement or agreement or treaty among more than two sovereign actors - Bilateral: an arrangement or agreement or treaty between two sovereign actors - Substate: non-sovereign actors with political goals - Civil society: the arena outside the state, and the market where people associate to advance common interests...may include the family...aka, the "third sector" of society Stoett’s Four Evaluation Criteria - Focus not just on international level but as important: local people, communities and institutions: • Historical route, scope, width and depth of penetration of agreements • Evidence of concrete environmental improvements • Cognitive success: raising of awareness • Democratic legitimacy and environmental justice: the legitimacy of multilateral institutions and international arrangements Cree Prophecy - "Only after the last tree has been cut down. Only after the last river has been poisoned. Only after the last fish has been caught. Only then will you find money cannot be eaten.“ "A people who would begin by burning fences and let the forest stand!" ~ Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) Liberalism and John Locke - Private Property Rights • unused property is waste and an offence against nature • But with “durable” goods, men could exchange their excessive perishable goods for goods that would last longer and thus not offend the natural law • introduction of money makes possible the unlimited accumulation of property without causing waste through spoilage - There is ALWAYS Americas • God, who hath given the world to men in common, hath also given them reason to make use of it to the best advantage of life and convenience. • Thus, in the beginning, all the world was America, and more so than that is now; • The same measure may be allowed still, without prejudice to anybody, full as the world seems. For, supposing a man or family, in the state they were at first, peopling of the world by the children of Adam or Noah, let him plant in some inland vacant places of America. The Wilderness - A state of nature to fear, to confront, to conquer, to subdue, to subjugate, to civilize - North America and the frontier mentality - Photo: Wilderness (2013) in the sovereign State of Tennessee - Official bird: The Mockingbird - Official Wild Animal: The Raccoon The Frontier Mentality - The frontier: unsettled, unordered, dangerous and frightening, nature intended to be confronted, defeated, subjugated and altered - frontier mentality: humans superior to all other forms of life, humans are not an integral part of nature - the world: unlimited supply of resources for human use regardless of the impacts on other species - bigger is better, continued material wealth will improve life, and nature must be put under subjection Frontier Mentality and the Growth Machine - Harvey Molotch, The City as a Growth Machine - land parcels are not empty fields awaiting human action - associated with specific interests—commercial, sentimental, and psychological - Real estate interests especially important in shaping cities: developers, construction industry, labour unions and lawyers, architects, engineers, landlords, financiers, media - those who gain wealth and/or gain value when growth takes place - "the local growth machine“ - the organization, lobbying, manipulating, and structuring of continuing growth - cities are shaped not by thus not due to an interpersonal market or geographic necessities, but by social actions, including opportunistic dealing. Mass Extinction - Stoett, pg. 43: ...we are in the middle of what may be the greatest mass extinction in history....not only in its midst, we are perpetuating it on a daily basis - As much as 1000 times the ‘background’ or naturally expected rate - Biodiversity which created the liveable planet has been ‘greatly impoverished’ in the last 100 years - Not just the ‘charismatic vertebrae’ - Mass slaughter and trophy hunting can’t compete with: • Habitat destruction • Climate change • Invasive species Convention on Biological Diversity - Montreal 21 December 2012. The 67th session of the United Nations General Assembly has recognized the importance of recent decisions adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), including those dealing with implementation of the global oceans agenda and realization of the outcomes of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development “Rio + 20” - “the future we want.” - US is not a party to the Conference - The target agreed by the world's Governments in 2002, "to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth", has not been met. Extinction - Species which have been assessed for extinction risk are on average moving closer to extinction - amphibians face the greatest risk and coral species are deteriorating most rapidly in status - quarter of plant species are estimated to be threatened with extinction. - vertebrate species fell by nearly a third on average between 1970 and 2006 - continues to fall globally, with especially severe declines in the tropics and freshwater species. - Natural habitats in most parts of the world continue to decline in extent and integrity, although there has been significant progress in slowing the rate of loss for tropical forests and mangroves - freshwater wetlands, sea ice habitats, salt marshes, coral reefs, seagrass beds and shellfish reefs are all showing serious declines. - Extensive fragmentation and degradation of forests, rivers and other ecosystems - Crop and livestock genetic diversity continues to decline in agricultural systems. Why Extinction Continues - The five principal pressures directly driving biodiversity loss are either constant or increasing in intensity: • habitat change • overexploitation • pollution • invasive alien species • climate change - ecological footprint of humanity exceeds the biological capacity of the Earth by a wider margin than at the time the 2010 target was agreed. The Cartagena Protocol - The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity was adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on 29 January 2000. By that date the Protocol had received 103 signatures. The Protocol entered into force on 11 September 2003, ninety days after receipt of the 50th instrument of ratification (Article 37). - 164 parties....Canada and US not among them The Nagoya Protocol - The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding, thereby contributing to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components. It was adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity at its tenth meeting on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan. The Nagoya Protocol will enter into force 90 days after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification. - 91 signatories - 12 ratifications to date.... History and Rising Concernes on Biodiversity - Imperialism and the creation of ‘nature reserves’ (segregated hunting) - Early conservation efforts (circa 1900) - Long standing tension between using and preserving - Protection strategies - 1882 North Seas fisheries convention - 1885 Uniform Regulation of fishing in the Rhine - Influence of Emerson, Thoreau, Whitman The CBD and the CBD Directorate - HQ in Montreal - Championed by PM Brian Mulroney - US (as of 2012) has signed but not ratified - Competition during negotiations North/South - Leadership of any convention secretariat important - CBD former director Ahmed Djoghlaf - Media/Public relations ‘savvy’ very important - ‘social commitments rooted in soft law’ - Soft law: laws (or quasi legal agreements) with little or no binding power...e.g. international law CBD Gains - based on strong, effective Secretariat - despite limited mandate and funding - use of Global Environmental Facility ($$$$) - partnerships with business (finance) and NGOs - increased cognition (awareness) - interagency links established between biodiversity orgs and development orgs - all endangered species important....the cute factor - Recession endangers the endangered Domestic Advantages to Ratification - Based in part on studies of Cartagena Protocol in China, Mexico and South Africa: - Significance of market and trade dynamics - Improvements in a state’s ability to influence other states: • ‘enhanced choices as an avenue of influence’ • enhanced access to information as an avenue of influence • enhanced capacity as an avenue of influence • opportunities for domestic institutional development • harmonization of standards CITES - Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna - First drafted in 1963...in force in 1975 with 175 member countries - A success? - Preservationist versus conservationists - Member state licensing, right of reservation - Enforcement, etc., a bargaining chip in politics as usual - Non-state monitoring: TRAFFIC Redefining the Wealth - Colossal extinction faces us - Endangers every life support system on the earth - Conservation requires successful integration of • Local and global communities • Values • Funding • Legal action - In short: a determined, multi-level governance approach Lessons 28 & 29  Deforestation and Land Degradation Raymond Mikesell: - The line between reversible and irreversible damage is not always clear - ...old growth ecosystems and severally eroded land may require hundreds or even thousands of years - ...such damage must be regarded as irreversible in the contest of the present and near future generations Deforestation - At least half of the world’s forests have been cut down - Deforestation leads to soil degradation and then to desertification - Deforestation directly linked to climate change - Caused by natural cycles, wind, population pressure, overgrazing, mining, agriculture, development - Cost: food security, biodiversity and loss of carbon absorption capacity - Illegal logging and timber trafficking is such a serious problem that the United Nations and Interpol has joined forces in order to tackle the global crime gangs that are responsible - New report from the United Nations Environmental Program has revealed that these criminal groups are responsible for 50% to 90% of illegal logging in trop
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