History Study.docx

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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2211E
Terry Biggs

History Study Notes Lectures Lecture 1 – Russian Revolution / WW1 - Model of totalitarianism – Actually a fascist state revolving around the idea that every aspect is under the direct influence of the government - Hannah Arendt – The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951) o She escaped the Nazi regime before the war o Believed the Nazi German regime was totalitarian because its policies and ideologies were ultimate o Other thinkers believed there had to be more criteria - Friedrich and Brzezinki – Totalitarianism and Autocracy (1956) o Harvard Professors during early Cold War o Made a list of requirements to determine totalitarian regimes  Extreme and elaborate ideology – call for radical or utopian change  Single party organization with one “leader”  Terroristic Police – police can do what ever they want, no limits at all  Communications Monopoly – everything had to be approved by the gov  Weapons Monopoly – armed forces under close state control, disciplined army  Centrally directed economy o Removing any of these features ruins the totality - This totalitarian regime was usually born out of crisis, or nostalgia for an earlier (possibly imaginary) period or age - Direct restraints on power are written and legal restraints - Indirect restraints on power are pluralist society and a separate military force/ideology - Natural restraints on power, people to actually commit the atrocities - Banality of Evil and Milgram Experiment show that some people are either to stupid or naïve to question instructions from authority - Russian Revolution o Serfdom – almost a feudal system, peasants tied to the land and must farm it for the lords o Russia constantly fighting wars with neighbours, using lords as the military  Fought Japan and lost o 1905 Revolution – unorganized, over throws the political system. Creates a pluralist society - Lenin 1870-1924 o Not Russian ethnicity o Exiled to Switzerland until 1917 because of political demonstrations with the Social Democratic Party o No reason to be a radical really o Social Democratic Split – Menshiviks (moderates more willing to deviate from Marxist ideology) and Bolsheviks (ideology was crucial, radical)  Lenin dominated the Bolsheviks - First World War – Russia o Many issues on Russian side  1914 losses 1.8 million on the East Prussian front, Galicia front and Caucasus front o Russian soldiers morale was low, 486000 soldiers surrendered  1915 couldn’t get food and ammo to the fronts  Many people were starving on the fronts  Junior officers not equipped to deal with these issues - 1917 Revolution o Tsar Nicholas II  Abdicated in 1917 because of food riots and general chaos in St. Petersburg o Provisional Government fails and October 1917 Bolsheviks take power - Bolshevik Government was divided on how to deal with the war o Lenin wanted to bring peace no matter the consequences o Trotsky wanted to continue until the Germans revolted on the Kaiser  Trotsky also created the “Red Army” - Bolshevik Party becomes Communist Party, which starts centralization o Terroristic Police: CHEKA 1917 - 1922  Felix Dzerzhinsky, head of CHEKA  Killed anywhere from 50,000 to 500,000 people, most were just in the wrong place at the wrong time o Kronstadt Revolt 1921  Sailors revolt against the Communist Party because of the terror of the CHEKA  Resulted in less oppression and some freedoms for peasants to sell their excess crops at a market - Bolsheviks started into totalitarianism but back tracked after mass revolt Lecture 2 – Imperial Germany to Weimar Republic - Wilhelm the Second created the thought that Germany’s neighbours (France and Russia) were its enemies o Two front Dilemma - Britain was a friend of Germany until a they amassed a large naval force, then the 2 countries were at odds - Turned into a war of attrition on both sides as there was little advancement on either front - Royal Naval Blockade stopped Germany from importing food or war supplies - Eastern front seen as the “saving face” of the war o Germans beat Russians in March 1918 - Germany then focuses on western front but are defeated o German high command (OHL) abdicate and leave others responsible for post-war clean up - 1919 Revolution o Friedrich Ebert is made President and compromises with the Army to stay and protect the country and maintain order o Left question Ebert’s compromise with the Army o Freikorps – demobilized soldiers who have no where to go and form small groups around their commanders and act like contractors for various people and organizations around Germany, functions as a Paramilitary o Spartacus League stages a coup in Berlin  Ebert asks Feikorps to step in against Spartacus League o Bavarian Soviet Republic – brief control, but could not maintain - Dolchstoss Myth o Post-war culture, anti semetic o Thought that Germany was tricked into making peace with Allies 1918-1919 o Suggested that Germany didn’t lose militarily but was undermined o Revolutionaries seen as Bolshevik outsiders - Weimar Politics o President was elected and the Chancellor appointed by having the majority of seats in the “Parliament” - 1919 – 1923 a lot of violence due to dissatisfaction with Versailles o Also hyper inflation because of massive debt after war o Weimar Republic came to an end because of the Depression 1929 - National Socialist German Workers Party o Hitler knows he must come to power by constitutional means after chaotic 1920’s o Following mostly middle-class and youth, eventually expand by gaining “bandwagon jumpers” as Nazis rise o No clear platform, very general so people could interpret it how they wanted to, wanted to appeal to the broadest following o Large Industrialists come aboard after 1930 - Hitler o Started as a runner during WW1, although the rhetoric was that he was on the frontlines, he actually was always 2-3 miles away o Friends with higher officials who fabricated events o Showed no leadership potential, private through the entire first world war o Only became Chancellor (1933) because President Hindenburg thought he could control him to do as he and his party wanted, plus he had some popularity - Reichstag Fire allowed Hitler and Nazis to enact legislation that would normally seem extreme, arrested all Communists o Enabling Act 1933 – Gives them complete authority to create legislation for 4 years, existing parties are eventually banned o Created the German Labour Front which absorbed all of the trade unions (1933) o Hindenburg dies in 1934, Hitler does not fill Presidency simply takes on the role himself, now know as the Fuhrer - Night of the Long Knives 1934 o Arrests and kills the officers of SA (Sturmabteilung) including the head Ernst Rohm o Himmler and SS (Schutzstaffel) become terror police - Hitler brings Army under his control, oath to the Fuhrer o Blomberg-Fritsch affair (1938) – leaders of the army both dismissed after some bogus charges are brought up o Enables Hitler to make himself head of the army Lecture 4 – The Hitler State 1933-1939 - Nazi hierarchy poorly designed o Wagon Wheel Model, Hitler at the hub, everyone was working towards the Fuhrer but some have connections to each other  Could have been a strategy to remove any accumulations of power  Could simply say you were “working towards the Fuhrer” even if you weren’t, questions the amount Hitler actually had control  Allowed to do illegal things as long as it was “working towards the Fuhrer” - Many redundancies in the Nazi bureaucracy, positions created for people who knew people and needed a job o Gauleiter – Supervisors of federal state officials  Odilo Globocnik, inept but knew people, eventually had to be moved because of so many issues, prominent role in SS and played a large role in Holocaust - Eventually “Nazified” almost all of the judiciary and police forces o At this point in the regime, minimal violence - Goebbels made Minister of Propaganda o Controlled all media o Had specific art shows to show what was wrong with certain kinds of art - The People’s Receiver – radio made affordable for all families so they could listen to the propaganda - Education – taught children to act not think o Unknown how effective education was between 1938 and 1939 o Hitler Youth programs not mandatory but encouraged o Private schools allowed to stay open until 1941 - Industry and Work o No independent workers unions o Equalization between military and workers, uniforms “everyone should have a crease in their trousers” o No rational economic policy from any agency, much of the country was still working as a free market  Guns or Butter?  Notion of switching from a free market to a national war economy - Womanhood – childbearing #1 priority o Given honors for producing large amounts of children o Supposed to stay at home - Strength Through Joy Program – socialized mass leisure “vacations” o Working class people taken on vacations that they could not have gone on before o Mostly into Northern seas Lecture 5 – Germany at War 1939 – 1945 - First step for Hitler was to rearm country, construct an air force and navy o Also meant eradicating the Treaty of Versailles o Reintroduce military service for males of age 1935 - Think they need more living and agricultural space - Want Germany to become an autarky (self-sufficient economy) - They also believe they have to “Germanize” any location they take over o Introduced to German public as a defensive measure to protect Germans from its enemies in Europe mainly Jews and Bolsheviks - Russians allowed Germany to use its equipment on its territory to train an army, circumventing the Versailles restrictions - Germany not prepared for massive world war in 1939, thought they would only be fighting Poland for Poland - Russia and Germany previously agreed upon a dual invasion of Poland - Germans begin to populate Poland o Part closest to Germany became apart of Germany o Also murdered and got rid of Polish intelligentsia and culture  “Make the Poles forget they were Polish” o 45,000 Poles murdered in 1939, disproportionate amount of Jews - Blitzkrieg was mostly a propaganda tool in Germany o Little cohesion between Allies  France was unwilling to fight a full out war against Germany - Germany had not planned on initially invading Britain, really only looking for more land in the east o This gave the British and Americans time to set up in Britain and ready themselves for attack - Germany was the only army to use horses, even though it was made to look very technologically advanced - Originally no preconceived “solutions” to the “Jewish Question” o Hitler makes no explicit policy statements on the “Jewish Question” o After invasion of Poland, German Jewish population swells o Tried to force emigration of Jews in peace times, took away rights to land and possessions o Madagascar Plan 1938 – Take all the Jews under their control (France, Poland, Germany etc.) and ship them to Madagascar  Turned out to be not logistically possible o Could deport them somewhere else under German control ie East Poland o Eventually started mass killing them when they started losing the war  Thought was that the war “would be for nothing” - German USSR War – 1941 o 2 phases – Germans assumed a quick war  Hunger Plan – Engineered by Herman Goering, head of the Air force  Cut off the cities from the rural farms, essentially killing 30 million people  Keep farmers alive and use the resources for the army  Master Plan for the East  Proposed by Himmler / SS  Initially replace Russian farms with Germans  Demodernize Russian cities and make into German farms o Invasion initially went quickly but the horses and wagons slowed over longer distances and worsening roads o 500,000 Red Army captives starved to death o Soviet off
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