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Political Science
Political Science 2230E
Jackie Newman

1774 Quebec Act  British law that provided for a system of government for the colony of Quebec that included certain privileges for the French-speaking, Roman Catholic majority. 1982 Constitution Act  Sponsored by Trudeau, containing a made-in-Canada constitutional amending formula and a Charter of Rights and Freedoms. *Asymmetrical federalism  Refers to a federal system in which the division of powers (and specific arrangements pertaining to them) are not the same from province to province.  In Canada, the debate of two against ten. As a recognized colonial identity within Canada, Quebec insisted on having its own Charter when the federal government decided to Patriate the constitution and add a Charter, and Alberta followed – they wanted jurisdiction over their resources. Manitoba joined on. It resulted in all provinces demanding their right to equal constitutional/federation power (as Quebec) – equal partners in a federal contract! Symmetrical federalism  Everyone is equal; goes along with the Contract theory of Federalism. Assembly of First Nations  The largest interest group representing status and non-status Indians. This organization works to protect the rights, treaty obligations, ceremonial practices/traditions, and claims of First Nations citizens. Auditor General  Parliamentary budget officer; the official of Parliament who oversees the auditing of government departments’ expenditures and reporting of unlawful or irresponsible spending. Backbenchers  A member of parliament who does not have a Cabinet post or specific position.  Ensures financial accountability in federal government operations. Bifurcated welfare state  A system divided into 2 parts, where higher income families are eligible for programs that help maintain and build assets while lower income families only qualify for necessities (such as food stamps). Brokerage Party  The idea that political parties should work to mediate and broker cleavages in regions, ethnic/linguistic groups, classes, and genders. Parties should act as national agents of integration.  Flaws: Lack concrete ideologies, political stance, and distinctive programs.  Liberal dominance. Cabinet Government  Refers to governments where major political decisions are made by the Cabinet as a whole, as opposed to one in which the prime minister acts with autonomy or dominance.  It is widely argued that in Canada, there no longer exists a Cabinet Government but a prime ministerial government. o The notion that the prime minister is now so dominant that the label “Cabinet governance” no longer accurately describes how decisions are made in the political executive. Cabinet solidarity  A convention that all Cabinet ministers must publicly support whatever decisions the Cabinet has made, regardless of their political views. Canada Health and Social Transfer Payments  A system of block transfer payments from the federal government to provincial governments to pay for health care, post-secondary education and welfare, in place from the 1996-97 fiscal year until the 2004-05 fiscal year. Central Agencies  Emphasize coordination of policies – finance and treasury board especially. Generally small departments that aren’t as hierarchical – more oversight departments; tend to be highly educated.  Jurisdiction usually extends across all policy areas. Cartel Party  Rather than relying on the funding from interests or patronage appoints, cartel parties are defined by the way(s) they monopolize money. One of the ways to do this is writing into the structure of the state itself, a way to guarantee money to the parties. The leading parties exploit their dominance around funding and electoral reform. This is when the policy of funding determination according to how many votes each party receives (per- vote payment). Caucus  The whole body of MPs whom discuss parliamentary strategy and party policy together. Charlottetown Accord (1992)  Response to Quebec’s demands for distinct society status, Aboriginal demands for the right to self-govern, and the West’s demand for a Triple-E Senate. o Triple-E Senate: equal, elected, effective. It is a proposed variation of reform to the current Canadian Senate, calling for senators to be elected to exercise effective powers in numbers equally representative of each province. Charter Constituencies  Aboriginals, women and ethnic minorities (a.k.a. distinctive groups) under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Civil service vs. Public service Classical conservatism  Conservatives seek to minimize the role of the state in capitalistic and market activity, advocating individualism and minimal government ownership. If inequality results, it is natural and deserved. Classical federalism  With the appointment of Sir Wilfrid Laurier came a new phase of Confederation that Rand Dyck refers to as "Classical Federalism". This was marked by a more equal relationship between the levels, as the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council settled several disputes in favour of the latter. The federal government's disallowance and reservation powers fell into disuse. This continued throughout the early years of the leadership of Prime Minister Mackenzie King.  More balanced and equal relationship between Federal and Provincial levels of government, as opposed to prior-to, where Federal powers had dominated decision making. Coalition Government  A cabinet of a parliamentary government in which several political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that coalition. The usual reason given for this arrangement is that no party on its own can achieve a majority in the parliament. A coalition government might also be created in a time of national difficulty or crisis, for example during wartime, or economic crisis, to give a government the high degree of perceived political legitimacy, or collective identity it desires whilst also playing a role in diminishing internal political strife. Collective Responsibility  If a vote of no confidence is passed in parliament, the government is responsible collectively, and thus the entire government resigns. Committee Stage  If passed in its Second Reading, a Bill proceeds to the Committee Stage – usually a Standing Committee – in the House of Commons or the Senate. o Standing Committee: permanent one; in the House of Commons; each committee deals with bills in specific subject areas (parallel to the areas of government). They cease to exist once they have reached their conclusion (ad hoc basis). Compact and Contract theories of Federalism  Compact theory posits that Confederation was an agreement between the two founding peoples, French and English, and that therefore Quebec should have special veto powers relating to its position in the federal structure.[11] However, compact theory was rejected by the Supreme Court of Canada in the 1981 Patriation Reference.[12] Compact theory is often advanced by Quebec nationalists.  Each province has the right to veto constitutional change that affects provincial power or national representation. Conflictual federalism  During the Trudeau era (1970-1984), federalism in Canada became more centralist in ideology; a dominant and controlling Federal government. Conscription Crisis  Canada was in desperate need to replenish its supply of soldiers; however, there were very few volunteers to replace them. The recruiting effort in Quebec had failed, and Canada turned conscription.  Almost all French Canadians opposed conscription: they felt that they had no particular loyalty to either Britain or France. Led by Henri Bourassa, they felt their only loyalty was to Quebec. English Canadians generally supported the war effort as they felt stronger ties to the British Empire. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 caused a considerable rift along ethnic lines between Anglophones and Francophones. Constitutional conventions  Unwritten rules of behavior; considered binding, but not enforceable by the courts. Constitutional monarchy  Canada’s form of government; characterized by a monarch who is head of state, but with almost all powers put in the hands of the government. Continental dependency  The notion of how continents depend on each other for resources and political needs. E.g. Canada’s heavy reliance on the USA. Crown Corporation  A corporation owned by the government that assumes a structure similar to that of a private company and that operates semi-independently of the Cabinet.  E.g. CBC, Canada Post, Bank of Canada, etc. Distinct Society  A clause in the Meech Lake Accord (Mulroney) which labeled Quebec as a distinct society apart from regular Canadian culture. Direct democracy  A system where people vote on policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then vote on policy initiatives. Durable Partisans  Those intensely committed to a particular party (numbers continue to decrease).  Your voting behaviour is set much earlier in your life by things like family, peers, and education. These are less likely to be swayed by elections and the party leader(s). Flexible Partisans  Much more influenced by current events, campaigns, negative campaigning, introduction of wedge issues, etc. This is seen to be much more prevalent today. Durham Report  1839 report by Lord Durham recommending the union of Upper and Lower Canada, and the granting of responsible government to the colony of Canada.  Canada needed to be (officially) bilingual – a proposition made after assimilation of the French failed. Elite accommodation  Interaction between the Cabinet, the senior public service, and advocacy groups; combined, they usually form most of the public decisions.  Elite in 2 ways: o Small numbers of people with a disproportionate amount of power. o Exclusive socioeconomic background; higher social class, incomes, and education.  Because they share a common background, they are usually able to come to an agreement as to what is best. Executive federalism  Term is used to describe the relations between cabinet ministers and officials of the two levels of government.  Usually secretive; legislatures, political parties, and the public are not allowed a role in decision making.  Extensive federal-provincial interaction.  First Ministers’ Conference (PM and Premiers). Replaced with the First Ministers’ dinners at the PM’s house. First-past-the post  Determined by measuring the candidate with the most votes in each riding (e.g. Canada).  Penalizes parties who do not have geographically-concentrated support.  Also known as single member plurality system. Fragment theory of culture  When people emigrated (we are a settler society), the settlers bring with them the cultural baggage from their homeland. As a result, Canada is a fragmented society.  Conservatism promoted multiculturalism. Where does the left wing aspect come from? When you looked at further emigration that comes over, the labour movement and working class that settle in the prairies and west, they bring with them the European working class ideologies: socialism. Because of this pre-existing collective basis in Canada, it flourished (unlike the U.S.). Governor General  The governor general is head of state, providing a ceremonial and constitutional continuity (doesn’t change with a change in government). In other words, it’s not a political office.  Queens Representative in Canada, dissolves and prorogue and summon parliament, acts as Head of State for visiting dignitaries, etc. Indian Act 1876  Creates a distinction between citizens and those that are governed by the Indian Act. To become Canadian citizens, a native American would have to give up their rights as outlined by the Indian Act.  Gave more power to bureaucrats and less to natives. Interest groups  Work to influence public policy. Judicial Committee of the Privy Council  A committee of the British Parliament which functioned as Canada’s court of appeal until 1949. King-Byng dispute (1926)  Canada makes a point of the importance of appointing its own Governor General.  King – Liberal with a minority government. Rather than getting a vote of centure, went to the Governor General and requested an election.  Byng – Could they form a coalition government? The Governor General refused King’s request for an election, and the Conservatives and Progressives joined. Eventually led to an election because they couldn’t agree on decisions.  Created a precedent where the Prime Minister would be allowed to select the governor general instead of allowing one to be brought in internationally. Loyal Opposition  Commonly known as the Official Opposition, is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the House of Commons or a provincial legislative assembly that is not in government, either on i
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