Inequality and exclusion are endemic features of contemporary global politics. Three
factors in particular are crucial: (1) enormous inequalities of power between states; (2)
global governance is shaped by an unwritten constitution that tends to privilege the
interests and agenda of global capitalism; (3) from health to security, tends to exclude many
with a legitimate stake in the outcomes.
Biometrics (or biometric authentication) refers to the identification of humans by their
characteristics or traits (e.g. voice, DNA, handprint, or behaviour).
Used in border technology surveillance, including Avatar. However, the number of
biometrics it takes means that the system is not (yet) reliable alone – it could be great if
inventors are given increased investment (provides 10 out of the 20 tags required to clear a
person for crossing).
A concept that demonstrates how a border is not a line – not where things stop, but a
unique site of exchange.
Celebrates the intermingling of cultures and integration of diverse state practices.
System introduced at the end of WWII to bring stability to the parts of the world economy
under US influence. The objective was to provide room in policy making to allow domestic
economies to intervene in the interests of ensuring full employment.
A system of managed exchange rates and capital flows operated until its breakdown in
1971, when the US announced it will no longer convert the dollar to gold.
Collapsed due to 3 factors:
1. The Nixon Shock (1971)
Nixon abandoned the Dollar-Gold Convertibility Standard (fixed exchange
rate regime became a floating exchange rate regime). The US did not have as
much money on federal reserve as everyone thought.
Abandoning free trade, the US introduced a 10% surcharge on trades across
the border, making it more difficult for countries to export to the US;
2. 1973 Oil Crisis
Led to stagflation – economic stagnation and high inflation.
Creation of the IMF, the GATT, and World Bank.
Members of OAPEC (Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries)
proclaimed an oil embargo on the US, to punish the US for re-supplying the
Israel military with arms (after it was outnumbered by Egypt, Syria, and
other Arab nations). Lasted until March 1974.
At the time countries relied mainly on crude oil – which came from these
OPEC countries. The world financial system (which was already on the
breakdown from the Nixon Shock) was set on a path of recessions and high
inflation that persisted until the 80s.
3. Stock Market Crash With this total reconstruction of the global economy, policy makers had to
re-construct macro-economic policies.
Conflict prominent in failed states, where a country’s government has lost control of
significant parts of the national territory and lacks the resources to re-imposed control.
We have to choose a society where everyone has access to the basic means of living (see Viel
of Ignorance). For communitarians (e.g. Rawls) this only takes place within the state.
National boundaries provide ethical constraints.
Humanity has members but no memory, so it has no history, culture, customary practices,
traditions, or shared understanding of social goods.
Globalization from within.
Focuses on identification with community, culture, or ideas that transcends borders
(freedom from national limitations).
E.g. Globalizing capitalism: Promoted a community and culture that was informed by
market economics, universal human rights, and liberal social culture.
Morality is universal (Kant’s Categorical Imperative and deontology; Bentham’s
Utilitarianism and Consequentialism).
Commitment to preventing unnecessary harms (e.g. Geneva conventions, ICC, Universal
Declaration of Human Rights).
Counter-proliferation refers to diplomatic, intelligence, and military efforts to combat the
proliferation of weapons, including both weapons of mass destruction (WMD), long-range
missiles, and certain conventional weapons. In contrast to non-proliferation, which focuses
on diplomatic, legal and administrative measures to dissuade and impede the acquisition of
such weapons, counter-proliferation focuses on intelligence, law enforcement, and
sometimes military action to prevent their acquisition.
Crimes Against Humanity
With the emergence of the New World Order (and globalization), the roles of the UN and
UNESCO changed significantly, and began to focus on the question of : “Should we
encourage more humanitarian intervention in sovereign states for crimes against -
humanity?” How effective are peacekeepers in keeping the peace?
Dealt with by the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Part either of a government policy or of a wide practice of atrocities tolerated or condoned
by a government or a de facto authority. Murder; extermination; torture; rape; political,
racial, or religious persecution and other inhumane acts reach the threshold of crimes
against humanity only if they are part of a widespread or systematic practice.
E.g. Nuremburg Trials, Tokyo Trials, Apartheid, and Rwanda.
(Sovereign) Debt Crisis *News Item* The European sovereign debt crisis (often referred to as the Eurozone crisis) is an ongoing
financial crisis that has made it difficult or impossible for some countries in the euro area to
repay or re-finance their government debt without the assistance of third parties.
Contemporary ecological philosophy distinguished by its advocacy of the inherent worth of
living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs.
Argues that the natural world is a subtle balance of complex inter-relationships in which the
existence of organisms is dependent on the existence of others within ecosystems. Human
interference with or destruction of the natural world poses a threat therefore not only to
humans but to all organisms constituting the natural order.
The use of threats by one party to convince another to refrain from initiating some course of
action. It convinces its target not to carry out the intended action because of the costs and
losses that target would incur.
In international security, a policy of deterrence generally refers to threats of military
retaliation directed by the leaders of one state to the leaders of another in an attempt to
prevent the other state from resorting to the threat of use of military force in pursuit of its
foreign policy goals.
Deterrence theory holds that nuclear weapons are intended to deter other states from
attacking with their nuclear weapons, through the promise of retaliation and possibly
mutually assured destruction (MAD).
Criticism: Assumes the opponent to be rational.
New Global Identity (Guest Lecture 8: UNESCO) provides new opportunities for social,
political, and economic development.
Development of LDCs threatened by too much trade liberalization. Alternatives?
o Trade-Led Development Development-Led Trade (e.g. Capacity building, EIF and
Aid for Trade).
o Post-Liberal development strategies
Macroeconomic reforms and regional integration; supporting smallholder
o South-South Partnerships
Southern markets (particularly in Asia) have seen a huge take off. The partnerships
with other countries being advantageous for LDCs. It is pulling a country with regional
o Domestic economies must be strengthened through flexibility mechanisms (i.e.
Having preferential market access).
o Developed countries have transnational obligations to ensure trade policies are not
repressive. Policies need to be examined in terms of labour standards and
environment laws. There might even be a need for selective protection to protect food
For capitalism and the free-market system, economies take off and wealth trickles down to
the bottom. This is the Western belief that the process will benefit everyone. Domination,
exploitation of nature. The alternative view is that human activity must be in balance with nature, valuing cultural
diversity and community. Advocates democratic inclusion, participation, local control, and
voices for marginalized groups.
Dollar-Gold Convertibility Standard
In 1944, the Bretton Woods system fixed exchange rates based on the U.S. dollar, which
was redeemable for gold by the U. S. government at the price of $35 per ounce. Thus, the
United States was committed to backing every dollar overseas with gold. Other currencies
were fixed to the dollar, and the dollar was pegged to gold.
Because the U.S. owned over half the world's official gold reserves - 574 million ounces at
the end of World War II - the system appeared secure.
However, from 1950 to 1969, as Germany and Japan recovered, the US share of the
world's economic output dropped significantly - there was less demand for dollars and
more demand for deutsche marks, yen, and francs.
By the early 1970s, as the costs of the Vietnam War and increased domestic spending
accelerated inflation, the U.S. was running a balance-of-payments deficit and a trade deficit.
Foreign banks held many more dollars than the U.S. held gold, leaving the U.S. vulnerable to
a run on its gold. Nations began demanding gold.
Nixon decided to break up Bretton Woods by suspending the convertibility of the dollar into
gold, freezing wages and prices for 90 days to combat potential inflationary effects, and
impose an import surcharge of 10 percent (August 1971).
The American public felt the government was rescuing them from price gougers and from a
foreign-caused exchange crisis. Politically, Nixon's actions were a massive success. Instead
of a fixed-exchange rate regime, there was a floating-exchange rate regime.
Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Economic and Social Rights
An element of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, these guarantee individuals access
to essential goods and services and seek to ensure equal participation. E.g. rights to food,
healthcare, housing, education, and social insurance.
Civil and Political Rights
Also an element of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, providing legal protections
against abuse by the state, ensuring political participation for all. E.g. equality before the
law, protection against torture, and freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and political
Economic Integration (Stages)
*An element of regionalism, these three build on each other to understand the economic drive of each
region. It is currently being debated in Europe as to how much fiscal policy should be integrated
(monetary is completely harmonized). The EU is the best example.
1. Free Trade Agreement: Barriers to Mutual Trade are Removed
o An example of a Free Trade Area would be NAFTA (Canada, U.S., and Mexico). It is a
trilaterial trade agreement that came into effect in 1994 eliminating all tariffs. In
this case, the US is the hegemon.
2. Customs Union: CET
o All countries apply the same external tariff on incoming goods. 3. Common Market: Free movement of labour, capital and services
o In addition to free trade and a common external tariff, advocates the free movement
of labour, capital, services, and persons.
4. Economic Union: Common Currency; monetary union.
The EU is the most comprehensive example of regional, economic, and political integration
in the world –it is unparalleled. With 27 members, it began with six (West Germany, France,
Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg) in 1957, and by 1973 Britain, Denmark,
and Ireland joined. Greece joined in 1981, Portugal and Spain in 1986, Austria, Finland, and
Sweden by 1995, and in 2004, central and Eastern European Union joined and radically
changed the face of the EU.
Currently there are many countries at various points in the accession process. One that has
made a bid for membership and been on the waiting list for a long time (since 1987) is
Turkey. This is one of the more contentious issues in Europe, having a lot to do with
identity, religion, and geography (straddling Europe and the Middle East). Former
Yugoslavian states are also making bids for membership. This is socially and culturally
On 1 January 1999, 11 EU members formally adopted the Euro, a new uniform currency that
fully replaced separate national currencies in January 2002.
The growth and stability pact says that countries part of the Eurozone must have a
restricted annual budget deficit. However there are very few mechanisms in place from
those who break these regulations.
Created in 1992 with the Maastricht Treaty. Origins trace back to 1951 and the creation of
the European Coal and Steel Community, and a broader customs union in 1957. Originally a
group of six, now has 27 members.
Best example of regional integration in practise.
Includes the European Commission (implements and oversees policy), European
Parliament (directly elected reps), Council of Ministers( joined with the EP, represents
national governments, and has a rotating presidency), European Council (sets agendas),
European Court of Justice (EU’s highest court, dealing with EU members and institutions),
European Central Bank (setting interest rates and supplying countries with currency).
Fixed Exchange Rate Regime
A rate the government (central bank) sets and maintains as the official exchange rate. A set
price will be determined against a major world currency (usually the U.S. dollar, but also
other major currencies such as the euro, the yen or a basket of currencies).
If, for example, it is determined that the value of a single unit of local currency is equal to
US$3, the central bank will have to ensure that it can supply the market with those dollars.
In order to maintain the rate, the central bank must keep a high level of foreign reserves.
This is a reserved amount of foreign currency held by the central bank that it can use to
release (or absorb) extra funds into (or out of) the market.
Floating Exchange Rate Regime Determined by the private market through supply and demand. A floating rate is often
termed "self-correcting," as any differences in supply and demand will automatically be
corrected in the market. If demand for a currency is low, its value will decrease, thus making
imported goods more expensive and stimulating demand for local goods and services. This
in turn will generate more jobs, causing an auto-correction in the market. A floating
exchange rate is constantly changing.
In reality, no currency is wholly fixed or floating – the central bank may intervene when it is
necessary to ensure stability and to avoid inflation. However, it is less often that the central
bank of a floating regime will interfere.
Ensuring that all people at all times have both physical and economic access to basic food; a
part of human development.
Includes monetary aid, human capital, technical assistance, etc.
o Humanitarian Aid – used in states of emergency (e.g. natural disasters). What is
provided is not expected to be repaid (money or resources).
o Charity Aid – provided by NGOs for various purposes. This is different, as it is done
for (supposedly) altruistic reasons (it is argued that many supply aid where they
think they will get publicity).
o Development Assistance – where the bulk of aid exists.
Reasons for providing aid:
o Self-interest: Buys diplomatic support (e.g. Security Council seat support); the
developing countries will give them deals and offers in repayment;
o Works in favour of own national interests (e.g. oil);
o Altruism (alleviate suffering – it is felt around the world when one place suffers).
Criticisms of Aid
o Transfers of money undermine competitiveness (e.g. Africa).
o Aid creates corruption (can easily be redirected and manipulated).
o Creates political unrest.
Foreign Direct Investment
Nearly ¾ of foreign direct investment takes place in developed countries. Of the remaining
quarter, it is found in emerging economic countries. Developing countries receive very
limited foreign direct investment. In order to attract FDI, developing countries have to
create incentives for corporations to bring production and business to their country. This
potentially creates a race to the bottom.
o Race to the Bottom: argued to occur between countries, as an outcome of
globalization, free trade, neoliberalism or economic deregulation. When competition
becomes fierce between geographic areas over a particular sector of trade and
production, governments are given increased incentive to cut business regulations,
labor standards, environmental laws and business taxes.
Belief that collective problem solving works functionally, not territorially. States can learn
to cooperate by beginning with global economic and social issues, THEN collaboration in
military and security matters. Proposal for transferring functions that states perform to International Organizations –
things should not be left to the states to run – solutions for these global problems are not
International institutions would result in spillover, leading to ongoing integration. Spillover
refers to successful integration of states to meet specific needs. E.g. integration of air
industries. Requires harmonizing fuel prices and tax structures, coordinate air traffic
Flaw of Functionalism
o Functionalism presumed that gradually political loyalties would move from states to
international organizations. This never happened – even in the European Union.
National identities have never fallen away.
1907 Hague Conventions
1949: Four Conventions
Alleges that innocent human life must be protected during times of war. Outlawed things
like mustard gas and crimes against humanity. Sees the creation of international law and
structure to international politics.
The Geneva Conventions are rules that apply in times of armed conflict and seek to protect
people who are not or are no longer taking part in hostilities, these include the sick and
wounded of armed forces on the field, wounded, sick, and shipwrecked members of armed
forces at sea, prisoners of war, and civilians.
An indirect form of government of imperial dominance in which the hegemon (leader state)
rules geopolitically subordinate states by the implied means of power, the threat of force,
rather than by direct military force.
For neorealists, it helps bring about integreation. For neogramscians, it requires consent
and coercion; a way for dominant actors to influence weaker ones.
Many third world countries adopt neoliberal policies (benefiting the hegemonic power) so
that they can receive the support from institutions (such as the IMF) that they desperately
Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs)
A group of 39 developing countries with high levels of poverty and debt overhang which are
eligible for special assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World
We need special and developmental treatment for developing countries, acknowledging
that they are all at different starting points (e.g. integrate markets for slowly, or install
economic safeguards). Provide protection to limit the risk coming from being exposed to the
Necessary when the violation of human rights has occurred (often intra-state conflict); R2P.
It is overriding state sovereignty for the protection of rights. Sometimes involves military
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) o States have a responsibility to protect their own citizens, but when are
unwilling/unable to, the responsibility is transferred to the society of states.
o UN initiative from 2005.
International Atomic Energy Agency
An international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and
to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was
established as an autonomous organization on 29 July 1957. Though established
independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute,
the IAEA reports to both the UN General Assembly and Security Council.
Problem with the Iranian crisis: Iran claims that atomic energy is being used for domestic
purposes only, and denies the IAEA access to sites. But with just raw intelligence, the IAEA
cannot determine if they are for using fission or domestic purposes.
International Criminal Court (ICC)
Established in 2003 by the UN and its Security Council.
Independent of direct state interference (hotly debated) - at least its aim is to put politics
aside and aim for justice; only gets involved when a national court is unwilling/unable to.
It does not have its own police force, and relies on national cooperation. The way in which
the ICC can exercise jurisdiction:
o If the crime was committed by an individual within a country.
o Or if the crimes were committed by a state or non-state party.
When do cases go to court?
o When it endangers the safety/security of mankind. Here you see a number of self-
referrals (e.g. Mali most recently).
o Independent prosecutor can initiate investigation on her own (it is a female at the
o In the past, tribunals were provided the cases, and the Security Council provided them.
International Financial Institutions
A sign of the internationalization of production.
Includes the IMF, WTO, GATT, Bretton Woods, etc.
The global financial crisis was a perfect example of how no one can isolate themselves from
the global market.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Following the Bretton Woods Conference, a new role for the IMF emerged. Its key task was
to buy developing countries’ loans, re-package them, and sell them back at a lower interest