Comparative Politics 2245E Mid Term Exam Study Notes.docx

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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2245E
Dan Bousfield

Comparative Politics 2245E Mid Term Exam Study Notes Unit 1 – Introduction to Comparative Politics Caramani: Page 1 – 48 ­ Define: comparative politics o One of the main subfields of comparative political science focusing on international political structures o Describe differences and similarities between political systems o Explain these differences o Predict which factors may cause similar or different outcomes o Includes national political systems, sub national and supra-national regions, international organizations, single political actors, processes and policies o Employs statistical techniques when research designs include many cases and quantitative indicators or comparative methods when research designs include few cases and qualitative indicators ­ Define: politics o Human activity of making public and authoritative decisions o Activity of acquiring the power of making such decisions and of exercising this power o Conflict or competition for power and its use o Who decides what is important for the life of societies ­ Aristotle o Work represents the oldest attempt on records of a comparative empirical data collection and analysis of political institutions o Distinguished three types of Greek city states: those ruled by one person, few persons and all citizens ­ Types of comparative politics o Study of single countries o Methodological: Establishing rules and standards of comparative analysis o Analytical: Combines empirical substance and method ­ Machiavelli o Told how principalities and republics are governed most successfully from a realist perspective and not how they should be governed by an ideal world Unit 2: States Weber: Politics as a Vocation ­ State is a human community that claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory ­ Politics means striving to share power or striving to influence the distribution of power, either among states or groups within a state ­ 2 ways of making politics one’s vocation o One lives for politics  Makes politics his life in an internal sense  Enjoys the naked possession of the power he exerts, or he nourishes his inner balance and self-feeling by the consciousness that his life has meaning in the service of a cause  Economically independent of the income politics can bring him o One lives off politics  Strives to make politics a permanent source of income  Salaried official  Receives either income from fees and perquisites for specific services or a fixed income in a money salary or both  May receive a fixed wage Strange: Page 81 – 88 ­ World markets are more powerful than states ­ Decline of state power is masked by several factors o States raise and spend more money than ever before o State’s presence in the daily lives of citizens is evident everywhere o Many groups in the world today seek their own state o States mostly in North America and Western Europe are suffering from loss of real authority Sassan: Page 89 – 94 ­ State continues to be fundamentally important ­ States have gained an important new role by promoting globalization ­ Globalization promotes a borderless world, in terms of economic exchanges, making it easier for companies to operate across national borders Unit 3: Nations Unit 4: Political Economy Coates: Page 129 – 137 ­ Compares market-led, state-led and negotiated models of capitalism ­ Integrated global economy will reduce the space for social democratic models and raises a caution about the social and economic consequences of the unregulated market driven model ­ Increasingly integrated global economy will allow fewer and fewer spaces for social democratic models of capitalism ­ Market led capitalism o Decisions lie overwhelmingly with private companies, free to pursue their own short-term profit motives and raise their capital in open financial markets o Workers enjoy limited statutory industrial and social rights o Earn only what they can extract from their employers in largely unregulated labour markets o State involvement is limited largely to market-creating and protecting measures o Liberal in form o E.g. US ­ State led capitalism o Decisions are primarily seen as the right and responsibility of private companies o Lack strong political and social rights o Conservative/nationalist o E.g. Japan ­ Negotiated or consensual social capitalism o Direct state regulation o Strong set of worker rights and welfare provision o Organized labour, powerful market presence o Ability to participate directly in industrial decision making o Social democratic o E.g. Sweden and Germany Unit 5: Democracies Caramani: Page 84 – 101 ­ Number of democratic regimes have increased by 3x since 1950 ­ 4 factors that have contributed to the new interest in comparing democracies o Important studies by Powell and Lijphart which sought to characterize and compare democratic regimes as a whole, joining measures of variation in cleavage patterns and party politics to those of institutional structures o Growing weight of the third wave of democratization and explosion in transitions to democracy that occurred after the fall of the Berlin Wall o Evident lack of democratic experience in many of the polities making this transition, led to a major resurgence in scholarly and practical interest o Developments within political science was prompted in particular by the neo-institutional turn in political analysis ­ Types of voting restrictions o Census voting: only wealthy people could vote o Capacity voting: only educated people can vote or those who served in the army o Race: only white people were allowed to vote ­ Milestones of democracy o Incorporation: citizens won the right to participate in governmental decisions by casting a vote o Representation: The right to be represented, to organize parties and have them participate in parliament in equal to other parties o Organized opposition: Right of an organized opposition t appeal for votes against government in elections and in parliament Unit 6: Authoritarian Regimes Caramani: Page 102 – 118 ­ Seizure of power: means of an actual or threatened coup d’état which means a blow by/of the state by the military arm of the state against its own government o First emerged in the form of personal dictatorship o E.g. Napoleon ­ Types of coup o Corporate coup: carried out by the military as a corporate body and under the command of most senior officers o Factional coup: carried out by only a faction of the military and often under the command of only middle-ranking officers o Counter coup: launched against a military government by a disaffected or ambitious faction of officers ­ Historical examples o Russian Revolutionary Coup – October 1917: Bolshevik Party later renamed the communist party o Chinese Revolutionary Civil War – 1946: Chinese Communist Party tried to win control of the country’s urban centres, creating a large People’s Liberation Army o Iranian Islamic revolution – 1979: Led by mosque mobilized street demonstrations, produced a clergy dominated regime by Shiite Muslim clergy and Ayatollah Khomeini ­ Authoritarian, military, communist and fascist, dictatorship and then democracy Sen: Page 184 – 193 ­ Democracy is rising ­ Signing of the Magna Carta, French and American Revolution, widening of the franchise in Europe and North America ­ Democracy is established as the normal form of government ­ Recognized as a right and universal value ­ Openness to competition, use of international markets, public provision of incentives for investment and export, high level of literacy and schooling, successful land norms, social opportunities, widen the process of economic expansion ­ Ways that democracy enriches the live of citizens o Political and social participation has intrinsic value for human life and well- being o Democracy has an important instrumental value in enhancing the hearing that people get in expressing and supporting their claims to political attention o Practice of democracy has a constructive value that gives citizens an opportunity to learn from one another and helps society to form its values and priorities ­ Claim that democracy is a universal value is that people anywhere have a reason to see it as valuable, does not have to be a universal consent ­ Asians traditionally value discipline, not political freedom; attitude to democracy may be more sceptical in these countries ­ Confucius is the standard author quoted in interpreting Asian values ­ Islam is often portrayed as intolerant of individual freedom ­ Practice of democracy has won out in the modern West since the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution Carothers: Page 247 – 255 ­ Authoritarian regimes are overthrown by democratic institutes ­ Historical examples o Fall of right wing authoritarian regimes in Southern Europe in the mid 1970s o Replacement of military dictatorships by elected civilian governments across Latin America from 1970 to 1980 o Decline of authoritarian rule in East and South Asia in mid 1980s o Collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe at the end of the 1980s o Breakup of the Soviet Union and establishment of 15 post Soviet republics in 1991 o Decline of one- party regimes in parts of sub-Saharan Africa in the
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