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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2060
Professor
o
Semester
Fall

Description
Intro to I/O Psychology 12/15/2011 10:01:00 AM Outline  Introduction to I/O Psych  History of I/O Psych o Time periods, no years  People to note: o Walter Dill Scott o Munsterburg o Thurstone o Webster Introduction to I/O Psychology  What is I/O Psychology? o Study and practice of psychology at work o Scientific study of thinking at work  Where do I/O psychologists work? o Universities-research o Consulting firms- test dev. o Industry- hr o Government- select employees  Mostly uni and consulting firms  Individual: o Motivate o Goals o Stress o Work satisfaction  Organization: o Hr What do I/O Psychologists do?  1 Sem o Research methods o Job analysis o Psychological testing o Personnel selection o Training o Performance appraisal o Human factors  2nd Sem o organizational chang o occupational health o organizational attitudes o teams o work motivation o leadership o unions  only 5% of the public know what I/O psychology is  clinical vs. I/O  e.g. o develop assessment centres for AT&T o work with US Army to place recruits in jobs o help Compaq employees cope with layoffs o assist GE with systems to provide job performance with feedback CSIOP (Canadian Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology)  In Canada  Conference every year  Rep board  SIOP in the US  Mission o Help organizations manage their human resources o Help individuals realize their work goals o Scientifically investigate human behavior and cognition at work  Licensure o Process by which professional practice is regulated to ensure quality stanards are met to protect the public o To become licensed, an individual must  Meet degree requirements (ph.D in Ontario, College of psychologists of Ontario)  Meeting training requirements (# hrs and supervised by a another psychologist)  Complete written and oral exams on various topics, including ethics o Under a regulated board o Controversy: do we need to be licensed?  Very important in psychology as it is a healthcare  But I/O isn’t clinical, much of the work for licensure is irrelevant History Overview  1900-1916: Early years  1914-1918: WWI  1919-1940: between the wars  1941-1945: WWII  1946-1963: toward specialization  1964-1993: government regulation  1994-present: information age 1900-1916: Early years  precursors to I/O psych, 4 factors that drove I/O psych o practical focus  through science o concern for industrial efficiency  employers, time-motion focus production in manufacturing o changes in psychology  individual differences and experimental method o societal changes  topic of evolution, capitalism, work ethic  Bryon: published paper on the skill in morse code o No one had looked at skill and work psychology Founding Figures 1. Walter Dill Scott  Advertising and psychology  2 books: influencing people, improving human efficiency o strategies-> competition, etc.  involved in WWI 2. Frederick Taylor  engineer  value of redesigning work to improve production and higher wages  less people employed but paid more  productivity and breaks/rest  principles of scientific management o e.g. science over rule of thumb  Video: o Measured and timed all movements o Shouldn’t just be concerned with efficiency o Employees resist 3. Lillian Gilbreth  worked with her husband  stress and fatigue: effects on productivity 4. Hugo Munsterberg  founder of I/O psychology (debateable)  psychological applications to industrial problems o e.g. what makes a safe trolley operator 5. other contributors  Arthur Korn hauser o Job stress and mental health  Louis Leon Thurstone o Measurement theory and statistics o Selection and vocational guidance  James McKeen Cattell o Founder of the Psychological Corporation- the first I/O consulting firm 1914-1918: WWI Robert Yerkes  Put forth proposals, big contributor president of APA (American Psych. Association)  Not well known  Military was skeptical of psych in general  Few proposals were accepted  Army alpha o Intelligence test to select recruits o But 30% were illiterate  Army beta o Developed as a result o Graphics/visuals intelligence test, non verbal  Journal of applied psychology 1919-1940: Between the Wars  research centers  examine psych questions  bureau of salesmanship research o walter bingham o selection, classification, and development of clerical, executive, and sales personnel  university and industry collaborations  psychological corporation o James Cattell o Advance psychology and promote its usefulness to industry o Provided reference checks on psychologists  Hawthorne Studies 1924 (not specific to I/O Psych) o Series of research studies at Western Electric Company o Focused I/O psychologists’ interests on work behavior in organizations  Goal: efficiency  But found that workers and their behavior is important o Unexpected study results  Productivity increased regardless of lighting  Coined the term “the Hawthorne Effect”  As long as someone is monitoring/observing, productivity increased  Doesn’t last o Workers as people was realized  Informal work groups  Employee attitudes  Sympathetic supervisors 1941-1945: WWII  army general classification test o recognized the importance o selection and placement of personnel in military  office of strategic services o developed situational stress tests  place people in intelligence units  selection and training of pilots o previously observe and select pilots based on virtual flight video/recordings  industrial psychology in civillian life o absenteeism in the workplace 1946-1963: Toward Specialization  field of scientific inquiry o univerisities  subspecialties o ergonomics, personnel, etc.  HR o Individual means, informal groups, social relationships as a basis  Organizational flavor o Development, change 1964-1993: Government Intervention  civil rights movement in the US o employment tests were monitored for discrimination o I/O psychologists became legally accountable for their actions  Project A o “The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery” o Used to select and classify military personnel 1994-present: the information age  characterized by the need to adopt to change o generalists  more than specialists  not complete 1 set of tasts, not just 1 job  e-business  urgncy of delivery o how quickly  slow extinction of concept of “job” o general skills, competencies, not as many specifics  telecommuting, virtual work teams  overseas work I/O Psych Today  Virtual workplace  Worker environment  Changing technology  Globalization of the workplace  Diversity issues  Aging workplace o Espec. Canada Job Analysis & Competency Models 12/15/2011 10:01:00 AM Outline:  Conceptual vs. actual criteria  Criterion deficiency, relevance, and contamination  Job performance criteria  Job analysis overview  Steps of job analysis Conceptual vs. Actual Criteria Criteria: standards used to help make evaluative judgments about objects, people, or evens  E.g. “goodness in teaching” criteria might include preparedness and course relevance Conceptual Criteria:  Theoretical standard that researchers seek to understand through their research  Ideal set of factors that constitute success  Abstract idea, never actually measured  E.g. our idea of “a good employee” Actual Criteria:  Operational or actual standard that researchers measure or assess  Serve as measures of the conceptual criteria  E.g. our measures of the qualities of a “good employee”  Goal is to obtain an estimate of the conceptual criterion by selecting actual criteria that we think are appropriate Example:  How would you define a “good employee”? o Good citizen o Commitment o Etc.  How would you measure the qualities of a “good employee”? o Good citizen: number of committees the employee volunteers to be a part of o Commitment: peer reports to a question about how dedicated an employee is to the organization Criterion Deficiency, Relevance, and Contamination Criterion Relationship  Actual criteria are never totally equivalent to conceptual criteria  So there is always o Relevance o Deficiency o Contamination o Criterion relevance:  Degree to which the actual and conceptual criteria coincide Criterion Deficiency: part of the conceptual criterion not measured by the actual criterion Criterion Contamination: part of the actual criterion that is unrelated to the conceptual criterion  Includes: o Bias- extent to which actual criteria consistently measure something other than the conceptual criteria o Error- extent to which actual criteria are not related to anything at all Job Performance Criteria  Desirable job performance criteria can be defined by 3 characteristics: 1. Appropriate 2. Stable 3. Practical  Objective performance criteria o Objective, factual o E.g. number of widgets produced, days absent  Subjective performance criteria o Judgmental evaluations of performance o E.g. customer ratings of service The Criteria List:  Production  Sales  Tenure or turnover  Absenteeism  Accidents  Theft  Counterproductive work behavior  Emotional labour  Person-organization fit Job Analysis Overview Job Analysis  Formal procedure by which the content of a job is defined in terms of tasks and human qualifications needed to perform the job  Job analysis information is used for developing: o Job descriptions o Job specifications 6 Steps of Job Analysis 1. Identify use of information 2. Review background information 3. Select positions and jobs to be analyzed 4. Collect data 5. Review information 6. Develop job descriptions, specifications 1. Identify Use of Information  sample uses of job analysis information o HR planning o Recruitment and selection o Job evaluation o Performance appraisal o Training and development 2. Review Background Information  obtaining /review background information: o organization charts  depict organization’s structure in chart form  show how job in question relates to other jobs in the organization  o job/occupational descriptions  existing job descriptions  occupational databases  Occupational Information Network (O*NET)  National Occupational Classification (NOC) o other sources 3. Select positions and jobs to be analyzed 4. Collect Data  overview i. sources ii. types of procedures iii. procedures for collecting information i. Sources of Job Information  Vital that job analysis is an accurate and complete representation of the job  Subject Matter Expert (SME) 3 major sources of job information: o job incumbent (Holder of the job)  adv:  experience with job  familiarity with job  acceptance of job analysis process  disadv:  cannot analyze new/future jobs  may lack knowledge, insight  possible lack of motivation o supervisor (Help determine what job incumbents do at work)  adv:  oversee jobs  define job  acceptance of job analysis process  disadv:  difficult to make job comparisons o job analyst (Conduct job analyses, guide job analysis process)  adv:  able to make comparisons  neutral perspective  disadv:  perceived as outsiders  may lack detailed job knowledge  costly ii. Collect Data Terms to understand  Tasks: basic units of work that are directed toward meeting specific job objectives  Position: set of tasks performed by a single employee  Job: set of similar positions in an organization  Job family: group of similar jobs in an organization Task-oriented procedures  Designed to identify tasks performed  What is accomplished  Tasks are the basic unit of analysis  Tasks can be rated in terms of o frequency o importance o difficulty o consequences of error Worker-oriented procedures  Designed to identify the human attributes needed to perform a job  Human attributes are classified as: o Knowledge(K)  E.g. knowledge of city building codes o Skills (S)  E.g. skill in operating a drill o Abilities(A)  E.g. ability to lift a 50lb object o Other characteristics(O)  E.g. remain calm in emergencies Linkage Analysis  Technique that establishes connection between o Tasks performed o Human attributes needed to perform tasks iii. Procedures for collecting information Job analysis procedures  Direct observation – incumbents are observed performing their jobs o Adv:  Useful for observing physical activity  Helps appreciate job conditions  Allows direct contact with job  Focuses on reality o Disadv:  Observer may interfere  Assumes jobs are static  Difficult for jobs with mental activity  Difficult to understand “why” of a job  Difficult to observe occasional activity  Interviews – job analyst asks SMEs questions about their jobs o Adv:  Report the unobservable  Report activities over long time span  Can explain purpose of job analysis o Disadv:  Distortion of information  Interviewer skill matters  Rapport is important  Questionnaires – respondents check items or rate items on their relevance to a particular job o Adv:  Cheaper to administer  Easy to administer  Useful for quantification  Good for large numbers of employees o Disadv:  Cost of development  Difficult to follow up  Less rapport possible  Focus on perceptions  Position analysis questionnaire - Structured questionnaire used to describe human attributes needed to perform a job o Statements in 8 categories (E.g. mental processes, job context, etc.) o Respondents check off elements or rate elements on importance, time, difficulty o Adv:  Standardized  Reliable  Personal factors have little impact o Disadv:  Expert vs. naïve raters not equivalent  More suited for blue-collar jobs  Behavioural similarities vs. task differences  Reading level is high  Fleishman job analysis survey – describes jobs in terms of the abilities required to perform them o E.g. cognitive ability, physical ability o Adv:  Reliability/validity  Simple administration  Cost efficient o Disadv:  Ability only 5. Review Information 6. Develop job descriptions and specifications  job descriptions: written statements of what, how, and under what conditions  job specifications: identify the human requirements needed for the job  may include o job identification o job summary o relationships o duties, responsibilities o authority of incumbent o performance standards o working conditions Job Analysis & Competency Models Pt.2 12/15/2011 10:01:00 AM Outline:  Review  Competency modeling  Job evaluation  Job analysis activity Competency Modeling Background  Rapid change in the workplace o Due to teams, job rotation, technology (jobs/job tasks don’t stay the same), required knowledge skills and abilities  … means changes to workers’ tasks  … and KSAOs  Job analysis may not always be appropriate The process for determining the human characteristics (i.e. competencies needed to perform a job successfully  Tend to be general  Technique becoming more common o E.g. respect others, customers, communicate well o E.g. instead of typing skills look for adaptability Competencies  Competencies tend to be defined by: o Critical KSAOs (knowledge skills and other skills) o Successful job performance o Observable or measurable o Distinguish among superior and other performers  E.g. being sensitive and respectful of the dignity of all employees  E.g. staying current with the latest technological advances within your area  3 competency categories:  note: still need job specific information o core competencies  characteristics that apply to all members of the organization  e.g. respect, compassion o functional competencies  characteristics that apply to members of common job groups or occupations o job-specific competencies  characteristics that apply to only specific positions  example: o core competencies  pilots, navigators, ticket agents, flight attendants  trust and interpersonal communication o functional competencies  pilots, navigators: map reading  ticket agents, flight attendants: courtesy o job-specific competencies  pilots: skills to fly a plane Job Evaluation  Procedure for assessing the relative value of jobs in an organization for the purpose of establishing levels of compensation External vs. Internal Equity  External equity: o Fair wage in comparison to what other employers are paying o Wage and salary surveys  Internal equity: o Fair compensation within the organization o Job evaluation Job Comparison Approaches  2 approaches: o intuitive  dissatisfaction with the organization  update information o compensable factors  effort, skill, responsibility, working conditions  perhaps best to use this approach Preparing for Job Evaluation  Identify a need  Gain cooperation  Choose a committee o Pick people from different areas Methods of Job Evaluation  1. Ranking method o Simplest method o Steps:  Obtain job information  Group jobs  Choose compensable factors  Rank jobs o Rankings based on overall factor o E.g. “job difficulty”- Nurse’s aide, head nurse, nurse, director of operations  Director of Operations  Head nurse  Nurse  Nurse’s aide o Very subjective o Adv:  Easy to explain  Relatively less time to complete  Small organizations o Disadv:  Reliance on “guestimates”  Relative value  Too simple  2. Job classification method  3. Point method o identify several compensable factors o determine degrees of compensable factors o calculate point value o steps:  determine job clusters  collect job information  select compensable factors  define factor degrees  determine factor weights  assign point values  rate the jobs o e.g. responsibility, working conditions- Head nurse, nurse’s aide, nurse, director of operations  responsibility: 2 degrees  1= none  2= responsible for others  working conditions  1= routine office equipment few hazards  2= moderate risk of accident  3= strenuous activity  total points = 100  weights  responsibility: 70%  working conditions: 30%  Nurse’s aide  Responsibility: 35 points  Working conditions: 20 points  Head nurse  Responsibility: 70 points  Working conditions: 20 points  Etc.  Adv:  Quantitative technique  Easy to explain and use  Disadv:  Time consuming, difficult to develop point plan  Time consuming to train job evaluation group  4. Factor comparison method Recruitment and Selection 12/15/2011 10:01:00 AM Intro to Selection Selection: process of choosing individuals with relevant qualifications to fill job opennings  Purpose of selection is to find the “best” candidate for the job o Required KSAOs o Good performer o Accept corporate values o Fit organizational culture 3 Reasons for Proper Selection  Company performance o Quality of employees important in determining firm survival and success  #2 concern after profit in a survey  cost o high costs of hiring o high costs associated with inappropriate selection decisions  legal implications o must ensure all procedures free of discrimination External Factors  Economic climate o Whether or not to hire  Labour Markets o how extensively the organization searches to fill the job o Qualified labour is scarce  Recruit outside territory (regions with low economic growth/high unemployment)  Use a variety of media  Improve salary, benefits, training, educational opportunities, working conditions o Favourable labour market  Advertise only in local media  Legal environment o Comply with legal and regulatory requirements o Employment equity  Policies and practices designed to increase the presence of qualified women, visible minorities, aboriginal people, and people with disabilities in the workforce  Follows legislation of Canada o use a variety of communication channels to get its message to members of different groups  competition Internal Factors  The business plan: statement of its mission, philosophy, strengths and weaknesses, and goals and objectives o influences the degree to which the organization fills vacancies with internal or external applicants  mission and vision  organizational values  strategic goals  business plan  HR planning o Process to ensure the right number of type of individuals are available at the right time and place o Based on an analysis of the organiation’s business plan o Develops an action plan to meet the recruiting objectives  Applicant pool o The set of potential candidates interested in, likely to apply for a specific job o An effective action plan targets recruiting efforts on a specific pool of job applicants who have the knowledge, skills, abilities, competencies, and other talents o HR must know where to find this applicant pool  Tailor its message to that group, attract applicants o Timing of recruitment initiatives  Recruitment occurs in response to need  Systematic (usually large and hire heavily from college/university graduates), or when employees leave o Job description  Clear idea of duties and tasks  Up-to-date  Based on a job analysis  Both recruiters and applicants should have a clear idea of the qualifications o Recruitment sources  Once identified and located  Family and friends are the most frequently used recruitment source  Growth in internet recruiting  Least from job fairs o Recruitment  Money is not the only motivator  Self selecting out
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