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Psychology 2075 Final: Chapter 17 - Sex for Sale

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Psychology 2075
Michelle Everest

Chapter 16 – Sex for Sale DEFINITIONS • Erotica = sexually arousing material that is not violent, degrading or demeaning to women, men or children • Pornography = sexually arousing art, literature or films PORNOGRAPHY • Obscenity o Somethingthat is offensive accordingto “community standards of tolerance test” in Canada • Socio-cultural influences prevail what is and what is not considered obscene COMMUNITY STANDARDS OF TOLERANCE TEST • Would public opinion see a given material as being harmful to society? • In general, the CSTT is failed if: o The material in question portrays sex with violence o The material in question portrays sex which is degrading or dehumanizing o The risk of harm to people is significant TYPES OF PORNOGRAPHY • Magazines o Soft core – e.g., Playboy and Penthouse o Hardcore – e.g., Hustler • Films, videos, DVD’s • Live sex shows • Telephone sex • Electronic porn TYPES OF CYBER PORNOGRAPHY • Chatrooms- internet relay • Newsgroups • Commercial bulletin boards • Adult websites • Kiddie porn – illegal • Advertising CHILD PORNOGRAPHY • Prohibited under Criminal Code of Canada to protect child abuse, as children cannot give informed consent and experience psychological and physical damage • Mostmen convictedofchildpornographyoffencesarepedophiles andarat risktooffend children • Childpornography–anymaterialdepictingchild’sgenitalsforsexualpurpose,orchildren engaged in sexual activity o In 2001, Supreme Court ruled private artistic workof sexual depictionsof children and photographs of oneself are legal FEMINIST OBJECTIONS TO PORNOGRAPHY • Pornography debases women • Associated sex with violence • Glamorizes unequal power relationships • Structure of industry is problematic SEX WORK/SEX TRADE WORK • Sexual Workers – engage in sexual acts in return for money IN CANADA • It is estimated that the average age of entry into sex work is around 14 years of age • Women and girls working in prostitution in Canada have a mortality rate that is 40 times the national average o 75% of sex workers had made at least one suicide attempt VENUES FOR FEMALE SEX TRADE WORKERS • Call Girl = most expensive and exclusive category of prostitues • Brothels = house of prostitution o Bawdy house is the legal term in Canada • In-call Services = a residence in which prostitutes work regular shifts o Recent legal changes in Ontario TYPES OF FEMALE SEX TRADE WORKERS • Massage parlour = a place where massages, as well as sexual services can be purchased • Out-Call Service = service in which the escorts go to the clients • Streetwalker = lower-status sex workers who walk the streets selling sexual services o Male and Female o Recent legal clarifications in Ontario/Canada o THE LEGALITIES • Prostitution itself has not been illegal • Laws in place prohibited the practice of prostitution o Living off the avails of prostitution o Public communication for the purpose of prostitution o Working in common bawdy houses • LegalchallengebasedonperceivedviolationsofCanada’sCharterofRightsandFreedoms (1982) LEGALIZATION • Bedford vs. Canada • 2010 Ontario decisions truck down the current laws • Upheld in the Ontario court of appeal in 2012 • Appealed by the Canadian government; decision upheld by the Canadian Supreme court in 2013 o 9-0 decision to strike down current laws that inhibit the practice of sex work • Arguedsuccessfullythatsextradeworkerchargesofworkingin“commonbawdyhouses” and “living off the avails of prostitution” were unconstitutional because it created unsafe working environments (forced onto dangerous streets) o Disproportionate risk of citizens in the sex trade Arguments For • Sex work as a profession fulfills a basic human need • People have the right to use their own bodies without judgement or penalty o Public harassment or judgement • Johns would be penalized rather than the women in the sex trade industry(buying rather than selling) Arguments Against • Youth may be more drawn to the lure of money to pay for education/lifestyle. o Too young to make an informed choice • Neighbourhoods will suffer • The life can render poor, vulnerable women tied to a life of subservience, sexual abuse and drugs o An issue of SDOH: Race, SES STREET WALKERS • Most laws relate to impeding the flow of traffic by: o Stopping cars o Communicating with the public for purposes of sex trade work • Canadian laws have been traditionally in place to preserve neighbourhoods from having “common bawdy houses” o Safety of workers has been re-prioritized in Ontario THE CAREER OF A SEX TRADE WORKER • Entry – first step in a prostitute’s career • Reasons why women enter prostitution: o Economics o Force or coercion • Apprenticeship • Mid-career • Leaving the Life o Term is “squaring up” THIRD PARTIES Pimp • Companion, protector • Master of the prostitutes • Lives on money from the sex trade industry • Ofteninvolvedinintimidationtonon-payingclienteleornon-compliantsextradeworkers • May use drugs as a means to lure and keep sex trade workers in the industry Madam • A women who manages a brothel or escort service • Historical role as the protector of the workers • Benefits from the sex trade • Often graduated from sex trade work themselves o Unlike pimps MOTIVES FOR USING PROSTITUTES • sex without negotiation • sex without commitment • sex for eroticism and variety • sex away from home • sexual variations MALE SEX WORKERS Gigolo = a male who provides companionship and sexual gratification on a continuing basis to a woman in exchange for money Hustler = a male sex worker who sells his services to men • Full-time street and bar hustlers • Full-time call boys • Part-time Hustlers SEX WORKER ADVOCACY Maggie’s Toronto-Base
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