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Gender and Sexuality Ch 13.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2075
Professor
Corey Isaacs

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Gender and Sexuality 4/14/2013 12:51:00 PM Chapter 13 Gender Roles and Stereotypes  Gender role – a set of norms or culturally prescribed expectations that define how people of one gender ought to behave  Stereotype – a rigid set of beliefs about a group of people that distinguishes those from others and is applied to all member of that group o Children as young as 6 are aware of male and female stereotypes o Heterosexuality is viewed as an important gender role where the “feminine” women is expected to be sexually attracted to men and vice versa  Gender Schema Theory o A set of ideas that we associate with males and females which influences how we process information o It is difficult to change people’s stereotyped notions because we tend to filter out information that contradicts stereotypes  Traditional Sexual Script (TSS) – the heterosexual script is the most pervasive in North America o Scripts – cognitive frameworks for how people are expected to behave in social situations o Aspects of TSS:  Men are oversexed (having strong sexual needs) and women are undersexed  High sexual experience enhances men’s, but decreases women’s perceived status (stud vs. slut)  Men are expected to be “sexperts” and to take responsibility for their own and their female partner’s sexual pleasure and orgasm  Men are supposed to be the initiators  Women are expected to be sexual gatekeepers and place limits, so they don’t seem to sexually available  Socialization – refers to the ways in which society conveys to the individual its norms or expectations for their behaviour o Telling children what is expected of boys/men and girls/women may be sufficient for role learning o Self-socialization of children operates in two ways:  The more children identify with a particular gender, the more they are motivated to incorporate attributes of that gender into their self-concept  Seeing themselves as matching the stereotypes for their own gender strengthens children’s gender identity o Gender socialization comes from parents, peers and media  Children who watch more TV have more stereotyped ideas about gender roles than children who view  Gender roles and ethnicity o Ethnicity – a group of people who share a common and distinct racial, national, religious, linguistic or cultural origin o 31-46% of people in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver were born outside of Canada  The gender roles of these communities reflect the country in which they came from o Acculturation – the process of incorporation the beliefs and customs of a new culture o Ethnocultural Communities Facing AIDS examined sexuality within 6 Canadian Ethnocultural communities  Groups were chosen based on ethnicity, not race  A number of cross cultural similarities were found between roles  Men are expected to be the head of the family  Women are the caregivers  Dating is encouraged for sons, but not daughters o South Asian communities  Second largest visible minority in Canada as of 2006  Religion, hard work, education and achievement are seen as important  Men are given more privileges and women are passive o Chinese community  Largest visible minority in Canada as of 2006  Emphasizes responsibility of family and the community over self-fulfillment and individualism  Man is the head of the house, women are caregivers o English speaking Caribbean communities  Strong sense of family and community  Men provide for the family, while women are the caregivers and work outside of the home  More restrictions on boys than on girls o Aboriginal communities  Roles were originally more egalitarian than the European culture during the same period in history  Today they have adapted more to the majority culture of Canada  There are terms in two-thirds of the Aboriginal languages spoken that refer to a third or fourth gender beyond male and female  A man might be married to a two-spirit male, but the marriage would not be considered homosexual because the two are of different genders Gender Differences in Physiological Functioning  Gender differences in two areas: o Aggressiveness  Males are generally more aggressive  Generally the same across all cultures o Communications styles  Traditional roles favoured emotional expressiveness for females and avoidance for males  There is a contemporary ethic of openness from both males and females  Women are better than men at decoding non-verbal cues like body language and facial expression Gender Differences in Sexuality  Masturbation o One of the largest gender differences o Men are considerably more likely to masturbate than women  Attitudes about casual sex o Men are considerably more approving and women tend to be disapproving o Women are more likely to believe that sex without love is not satisfying  Pornography o Men were considerably more likely to use pornography  Arousal to erotica o Men are more aroused by erotic materials, but the difference between men and women was not large o Julia Heiman study – participants were sexually experienced university students, Heiman studied their responses as they listened to erotic stories  Methods of measurement:  Penile strain gauge – used to get a physiological measure of arousal in men  Photoplethysmograph (photometer) – a acrylic cylinder the size of a tampon that is placed inside the vagina to measure arousal in the female  Both instruments measure vasocongestion  Thermal imaging – a method of detecting genital arousal using a remote camera focused on the genital region to measure the temperature of the genital area  The participants heard four different types of tapes depicting heterosexual couples (erotic, romantic, erotic- romantic and control)  Erotic and erotic-romantic tapes – most arousing for both men and women
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