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Psychology 2075
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CHAPTER SEVEN CONCTRACEPTION AND ABORTION1969 Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau Parliament amended many of the laws pertaining to sexual behaviourOffences Tending to Corrupt Moralsprotect public and preserve social valuesvariety of reasons for an individuals use of contraceptivesif pregnancies are spaced three to five years apart limit family size avoid pregnancyTHE PILL THE PATCH AND THE RINGcombination birth control pills oral contraceptives woman takes a pill that contains estrogen and progestin at doses higher than natural levelsshe takes no pill or a placebo for seven days after which she repeats the cycle 21 on 7 off cycleHow it Workspill works mainly by preventing ovulationin a natural menstrual cycle low levels of estrogen during and just after the menstrual period trigger the pituitary to produce FSH which stimulates ovulationbirth control pills estrogen levels are high becuase E inhibits FSH production ovulation doesnt occurhigh levels of progesterone inhibits LH which further prevents ovulationpregestin provides additional backup effectskeeps cervical mucus thick sperm cant get throughit changes the lining of the uterus in a way that even if a fertilized egg arrived implantation is unlikelywhen the estrogen and progestin are withdrawn the uterus sheds and bleeding occursflow is typically reduced because the progestin has inhibited development of the endometriumEffectivenessif 100 women use a contraceptive method for one year the number of them who become pregnant during that year of use is called failure rate pregnancy rateeffectiveness is 100 minus the failure ratetwo kinds of failure ratefailure of perfect users well taught used with perfect consistencyfailure of typical users used imperfectlycombination pills are one of the most effective methods of birth controlfailures occur primarily as a result of forgetting to take a pill for two or more days or not taking it at the same time every dayif a women forgets to take a pill she should take it immediately after she remembersSide Effectsserious effects include slight increases in certain disease of the circulatory systemblood clotssymptoms of blood clots headaches chest pains shortness of breathpill can cause high blood pressurethe pill actually protects against endometrial cancer and ovarian cancerit may aggravate already existing cancer such as breast cancerpill increases the amount of vaginal discharge and the susceptibility of vaginitis because it alters the chemical balance of the lining of the vaginaincreased susceptibility of gonorrhoea and clamydiasome psychological effects include irritability depression changes in sexual desire related to progestAdvantages and Disadvantagesadvantages close to 100 effective if used properly and does not interfere with intercoursereduces menstrual flow and crampsside effects are a major disadvantage and it also places contraceptive responsibility on womanas well a woman that has intercourse infrequently it represents a contraceptive overkill always infertileReversibilitywhen a woman wants to become pregnant she stops taking the pill at the end of one cyclebrief delay in getting pregnant 23 monthsDrug Interactionsmay interact with other prescription drugsthe pill may increase the metabolism of another drug making them more potenttherefore a woman would require lower doses of these drugsOther Kinds of Pillscombination pills are so called because they contain both estrogen and progestinhigher doses are more prone to blood clotshigh estrogen causes side effects current pills contain less estrogenhigh progestin is related to symptoms such as vaginitis and depressiondepending on which side effects a woman wants to avoid she can choose that pill low E or Ptriphasic pill contains a steady level of estrogen like the combination pill but there are three phases of progestinthis reduces total hormone exposureprogestin only pills mini pills contain only a low dose of progestin and no estrogendesigned to avoid estrogen related side effects of the standard pillprogestin only pills work by changing the cervical mucus such that sperm cannot get through inhibiting implantation and inhibiting ovulation
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