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Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Parietal Lobe, Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs
Study Guide
Midterm

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Cerebral Cortex
Essential for quality of life but not physical survival- 80% of brain tissue
Lobe
Frontal
Parietal
Occipital
Temporal
Association cortex
Function
Speech &
skeletal
Body sensations •behind
central fissure (separates
frontal and parietal)
Visual center
•back of the brain
Auditory
system
Areas not associated with sensory or motor function
involved in mental processes • called silent areas because
electrical stimulation doesn’t cause experiences or
responses •within all lobes •70% of cerebral cortex •
allowed us to acquire new mental skills required for
human way of life
Frontal Lobe
Structure
Motor Cortex
Prefrontal Cortex
Broca's area
Function
Controls muscles involved in voluntary
movement
•rear of frontal lobe adjacent to central
fissure • each hemisphere governs opposite
side of body • different parts govern
different movements
Prefrontal lobotomies destroy this
Damage results in loss of ability to plan a
sequence of events, no feelings of apathy
Murderers lack these functions
Executive functions
Speech production; fine motor
movements involved in speech • damage
lets you understand speech but not
speak yourself
Parietal Lobe
Structure
Function
Somatic
Sensory Cortex
Same as motor cortex but for touch specific areas are responsible for specific body parts • more
sensitive the body part, the larger the area dedicated to it • learns form experience gets bigger
the more an area is used• located behind motor cortex
Occipital
Side
Dorsal
Ventral
Functio
n
Sends information about orientation and movement of
objects to the parietal lobe
Sends information about recognition to
the temporal lobe
Temporal lobe
Each ear sends info to both hemispheres
Wernicke's area
Responsible for language comprehension in contrast to Broca's area
Corpus colossum acts as a bridge between hemispheres
Lateralization greater localizations of a function on one side of the brain
Different Hemispheres
Hemisphere
Left
Right
Functions
Verbal/speech & language • math & logic •
positive emotions • damage may cause
Aphasia- partial or total loss of ability to
communicate
Mental imagery music and artistic functions
spatial relationships • negative emotions • damage
results in spatial problems and inability to recognize
faces/routes
Both sides can do both functions, just faster in
functions specialized in
In split brain patients different sides can have
different opinions, but in normal people the
brain works as a whole
Develops according to environment/use
In left handed people language may be
localized in either side or both
Some psychologists suggest conscious is in left
hemisphere
Neural plasticity ability of neurons to change
in structure and function
Can perform all actions required but not in
order
Apraxia inability to perform smooth motor
movements
Eyes/ears/etc are working properly but the
association area can't make sense of them
Agnosia inability to interpret sensory
information
Brocas difficulty in stringing words
together
Wernicke's difficulty in understanding
(agnosia)
Aphasia speech disorder
Summary- Nervous
October 24, 2016
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Chapter 1
Behaviour directly observed actions and
responses
Mind inferred observations of thoughts
and feelings
Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and
the mind
Clinical- study and treatment of mental
disorders
Cognitive- study of mental process- mind is an
information processor
Biopsychology/ neuroscience- biological
influence of behaviour
Developmental- physical, psychological, and
social development through life
Experimental- focuses on basic processes such
as learning, sensory systems and motivation
Industrial-organizational- behaviour in the
work place and what makes a good employee
Personality- study of core traits and influences
on personality
Social- thoughts and feelings relating to social
world
Different fields of psychology overlap due to levels of
analysis
Confirmation bias- selectively paying attention to
information confirming a preconceived notion
Describe how people and other animals
behave
1.
To explain and understand causes of behaviour
2.
Predict how people and animals will behave
under certain conditions
3.
To influence or control to enhance welfare
4.
Applied research designed to solve specific
practical problems
Basic research simply for the sake of knowing
Four essential goals
Biological- brain processes, genetic influence
1.
Psychological- level-thoughts feelings motives
2.
Environmental- past and current
physical/social environments
3.
Rene Descartes proposed that mind and
body interact through pineal gland
Mind body dualism- belief that mind is a
spiritual entity
Mental events correspond to physical
ones
British empiricism- all knowledge is
gained empirically
Monism- mind and body are one
Brain mapping began in 1870
Psychophysics- how mentally experienced
sensations depend on physical stimuli
Levels of analysis
Used by Wundt and Titchner
Introspection participants describe sensations to various
stimuli
Structuralism- analysis of mind in terms of basic elements
No longer used but transitioned into cognitive and
evolutionary psychology
Functionalism- psychology should study the functions of
consciousness rather than structure
Psychodynamic perspective- causes behaviour within inner
workings of personality
Found having patients relive memories relieved
symptoms
Used free association having patients express any
thoughts that came to mind often painful (often sexual)
childhood memories
Freud's theories were often viewed difficult to test but
did broaden field of psych
Freud's psychoanalysis- analysis of internal mostly
unconscious psychological forces
Different perspectives
Modern psychodynamic- how (un)conscious aspects of
personality influence behaviour
John Locke- early empiricist- mind is blank slate at birth
and shaped by environment
Thorndike's law of effect- positive and negative
reinforcement
Radical- attempt to limit negative behaviour by
manipulating environment
Behaviourism- emphasizes environmental control of
behavior
Cognitive- learning experiences and enviro give us the
info needed to behave effectively
Behavioural- focuses on role of external environment
Self actualization propose by Abraham Maslow
Need for belongingness
Positive psychology movement- how we can better
society rather than what's wrong with the world
Humanistic- emphasizes free will, personal growth, meaning of
life
Gestalt psychology- whole is greater than sum of parts
Cognitive neuroscience- use of electrical recording/
brain imaging to record activity during cognitive tasks
Cognitive- mental process influence behaviour
Socialization process by which culture is transmitted to
new cultures
Kenneth and Mamie Clark examined effects of
discrimination on personality development on African
American youth
Sociocultural- cultural and social influences on behaviour
Individualism- personal goals and self identity
Collectivism individual goals < goals of the group
Cultural psychology- transmission and similarities between
cultures
Biological perspective- how brain processes and other bodily
functions regulate behaviour
Sociobiology- complex behaviours built into genome
1. Science of behaviour
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gained empirically
Brain mapping began in 1870
Psychophysics- how mentally experienced
sensations depend on physical stimuli
Collectivism individual goals < goals of the group
Biological perspective- how brain processes and other bodily
functions regulate behaviour
Sociobiology- complex behaviours built into genome
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